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Fire safe bus interior materials – flame retardants and the effect on smoke production and smoke gas toxicity
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7001-9757
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6430-6602
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0009-0004-6100-6518
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The demands on bus interior products have increased with increasing sustainability, circularity and a reduction of harmful substances, today’s materials must be improved with regards of additives, such as flame retardants. A comprehensive study was made to evaluate the possibility to use phosphorous flame retardants (FRs) instead of the commonly used halogenated FRs compounded with ABS. The study showed that the fire performance could be improved with phosphorous FRs regarding heat release and smoke production. However, it was noted that the smoke production still was high, and that the smoke density was highest possible, i.e., no visibility through the smoke layer. Further testing of today’s bus interior materials showed that the high smoke density was achieved already after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that, in case of a fire, the visibility in the bus will be reduced and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. The bus fire regulation R118 for interior materials basically deals with burning rate and melting through a fine mesh. Critical fire parameters such as smoke production and smoke toxicity is not dealt with. The R118 regulation need to be improved with these critical parameters in order to have fire safe materials inside the bus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023.
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71490OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-71490DiVA, id: diva2:1831705
Conference
Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023
Note

The study was supported by the Swedish Centre for Chemical Substitution as well as Sweden’s strategicvehicle research and innovation partnership programme (FFI), via grant agreement 2019-03121.

Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-03-03Bibliographically approved

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Sandinge, AnnaBlomqvist, PerFredriksson, Henrik

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