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Simulation-based Evaluation of a Remotely Operated Road Vehicle under Transmission Delays and Denial-of-Service Attacks
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0148-533X
VTI, Sweden.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6217-0828
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5224-9412
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC, IEEE Computer Society , 2023, p. 23-29Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A remotely operated road vehicle (RORV) refers to a vehicle operated wirelessly from a remote location. In this paper, we report results from an evaluation of two safety mechanisms: safe braking and disconnection. These safety mechanisms are included in the control software for RORV developed by Roboauto, an intelligent mobility solutions provider. The safety mechanisms monitor the communication system to detect packet transmission delays, lost messages, and outages caused by naturally occurring interference as well as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. When the delay in the communication channel exceeds certain threshold values, the safety mechanisms are to initiate control actions to reduce the vehicle speed or stop the affected vehicle safely as soon as possible. To evaluate the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms, we exposed the vehicle control software to various communication failures using a software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing environment developed specifically for this study. Our results show that the safety mechanisms behaved correctly for a vast majority of the simulated communication failures. However, in a few cases, we noted that the safety mechanisms were triggered incorrectly, either too early or too late, according to the system specification. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society , 2023. p. 23-29
Keywords [en]
Control system synthesis; Denial-of-service attack; Failure (mechanical); Remote control; Safety engineering; Software testing; Vehicle to vehicle communications; Vehicle transmissions; Communication failure; Control software; Denialof- service attacks; Remote location; Remotely operated road vehicle; Road vehicles; Safety mechanisms; Software in the loops; Software-in-the-loop testing; Transmission delays; Specifications
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-70583DOI: 10.1109/PRDC59308.2023.00012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85182390657OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-70583DiVA, id: diva2:1830286
Conference
28th IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2023. Singapore. 24 October 2023 through 27 October 2023
Note

This work was supported by VALU3S project, which hasreceived funding from the ECSEL Joint Undertaking (JU)under grant agreement No 876852. We also would like toexpress our sincere gratitude to Stepan Kar ´ asek and Beata Davidova from Roboauto, who provided us with invaluable ´support to test their system in the simulation environment.

Available from: 2024-01-22 Created: 2024-01-22 Last updated: 2024-01-22Bibliographically approved

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Malik, MateenMaleki, MehdiFolkesson, PeterSangchoolie, Behrooz

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