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Uncertainties in the use of oxygen consumption calorimetry for heat release measurements in lithium-ion battery fires
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Uppsala University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2160-8034
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7163-1692
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9340-6768
Uppsala University, Sweden.
2024 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 143, article id 104078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate measurement of the heat release from a battery fire is vital for risk management, product development and construction of accurate models. Oxygen consumption calorimetry is the most common method for heat release measurements in experimental fire tests. The strength of the method is that it can be applied to unknown compositions of fuel with sufficient accuracy. Despite that this method is used to estimate heat release from battery fires, the method is subject to discussion. In this work, the method is studied in-depth, and potential errors are structured and quantified. Uncertainties associated with self-generated oxygen and internal heat generation, total gas release from the battery and impact on the heat release calculations, as well as the assumed E-factor (i.e., heat release per unit mass of oxygen consumed), are thoroughly discussed. For a Li-ion battery fire, it is concluded that oxygen consumption calorimetry will exclude internal heat generation and underestimate the total heat released from the external flaming fire by up to 10 %. In addition, high rate of combustion reactions can result in that the measured peak heat release rate is underestimated much more, up to 100 %. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2024. Vol. 143, article id 104078
Keywords [en]
Calorimeters; Calorimetry; Carbon dioxide; Enthalpy; Fires; Heat generation; Ions; Lithium compounds; Oxygen; Risk assessment; Risk management; Uncertainty analysis; Carbon dioxide generation calorimetries; Fire tests; Heat release; Heat release rate; Oxygen consumption calorimetry; Release measurements; Release rate; Thermal runaways; Total heat released; Uncertainty; Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-70010DOI: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.104078Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85181765133OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-70010DiVA, id: diva2:1828214
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-00064Swedish Energy Agency, 51787-1
Note

This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project no. 51787-1). Partners within the project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Northvolt, Scania, and Uppsala University. We also acknowledge support from Batteries Sweden (grant no. Vinnova-2019-00064), and STandUP for Energy.

Available from: 2024-01-16 Created: 2024-01-16 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved

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Willstrand, OlaPushp, MohitIngason, Haukur

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