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Video expert assessment of high quality video for Video Assistant Referee (VAR): A comparative study
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5060-9402
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9971-2432
FIFA Fédération Internationale de Football Association, Switzerland.
FIFA Fédération Internationale de Football Association, Switzerland.
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2023 (English)In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The International Football Association Board decided to introduce Video Assistant Referee (VAR) in 2018. This led to the need to develop methods for quality control of the VAR-systems. This article focuses on the important aspect to evaluate the video quality. Video Quality assessment has matured in the sense that there are standardized, commercial products and established open-source solutions to measure it with objective methods. Previous research has primarily focused on the end-user quality assessment. How to assess the video in the contribution phase of the chain is less studied. The novelties of this study are two-fold: 1) The user study is specifically targeting video experts i.e., to assess the perceived quality of video professionals working with video production. 2) Six video quality models have been independently benchmarked against the user data and evaluated to show which of the models could provide the best predictions of perceived quality. The independent evaluation is important to get unbiased results as shown by the Video Quality Experts Group. An experiment was performed involving 25 video experts in which they rated the perceived quality. The video formats tested were High-Definition TV both progressive and interlaced as well as a quarters size format that was scaled down half the size in both width and height. The videos were encoded with both H.264 and Motion JPEG for the full size but only H.264 for the quarter size. Bitrates ranged from 80 Mbit/s down to 10 Mbit/s. We could see that for H.264 that the quality was overall very good but dropped somewhat for 10 Mbit/s. For Motion JPEG the quality dropped over the whole range. For the interlaced format the degradation that was based on a simple deinterlacing method did receive overall low ratings. For the quarter size three different scaling algorithms were evaluated. Lanczos performed the best and Bilinear the worst. The performance of six different video quality models were evaluated for 1080p and 1080i. The Video Quality Metric for Variable Frame Delay had the best performance for both formats, followed by Video Multimethod Assessment Fusion method and the Video Quality Metric General model. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer , 2023.
Keywords [en]
Digital television; High definition television; Sports; Value engineering; Contribution; Objective video quality; PSNR; SSIM; Subjective video quality; Video assistant referee; Video quality; VIF; VMAF; VQM general; VQM_VFD; Quality control
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-69335DOI: 10.1007/s11042-023-17741-4Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85180664528OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-69335DiVA, id: diva2:1827735
Note

This work was funded by Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) and Sweden´s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, dnr. 2021-02107) through the Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2), which is hereby gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved

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Brunnström, KjellDjupsjöbacka, AndersAndrén, BörjeOzolins, Oskars

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