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Brannsikkerhet ved oppføring og rehabilitering av bygg
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-8413-7500
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-3445-8074
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9468-4586
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2164-940x
2023 (norsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Fire safety during construction and rehabilitation of buildings. This study deals with how the covering of buildings during the construction or rehabilitation of buildings affects fire safety and to what extent the regulations take this into account. The main focus has been mapping relevant requirements, recommendations, and performances related to the covering of buildings, mapping available materials, investigating the material’s fire properties, and modelling the spread of smoke within the covering. A mapping of the relevant laws and regulations applied for constructing and rehabilitating buildings has been carried out. The mapping has shown that demands are placed on owners, users, project owners, builders, businesses, employers, planners and contractors through many different laws and regulations. The people involved can have several roles, and similar roles have different names in the various regulations. For buildings in use, fire safety must be ensured for both the users and workers. It also applies that both the owner and the users are responsible for ensuring fire safety. It requires good communication and cooperation between different actors to ensure that fire safety is maintained for all involved, during the construction and rehabilitation of buildings. When covered scaffolding is used, the Regulations concerning the performance of work, use of work equipment and related technical requirements [10] require that the covering satisfy the fire requirements for materials used in escape routes (§17-20). The guideline to the Norwegian Regulations on technical requirements for construction works, TEK10, (Veiledningen til TEK10) §11-9, provides pre-accepted performance levels. For escape routes, class B-s1,d0 (In 1) is specified for walls and ceilings. There is no requirement for fire classification of the walkways in the scaffolding under the applicable laws and regulations. We believe there should be requirements for fire classification of the walkways, in the same way as for the covering, i.e., B-s1,d0 (In 1) for surfaces on walls and ceilings and Dfl-s1 (G) for surfaces on floors. The simulations of the spread of smoke from a fire inside a building during construction or rehabilitation show that the spread of smoke is affected when the scaffolding around the building is covered. Covering around the sides leads to a greater horizontal spread of smoke in the scaffolding than without covering. When the cover also has a roof, the smoke first accumulates underneath the cover's roof before it eventually also fills up with smoke down the floors of the scaffolding. The simulations showed that establishing an open field in the upper part of the cover would ventilate the smoke gases effectively, and the spread of smoke was essentially the same as for a cover without a roof. In addition, the simulation indicated that the air flow through the walkways in the scaffold could be an important factor in reducing the covering's negative effect on the spread of smoke. Of the 64 different products used for covering found in the survey, 35% had full classification according to EN 13501-1 (such as B,s1-d0). About 6% stated that the product was not flame retardant. Of the remainder, it was evenly distributed between those who stated a fire classification according to other test methods, those who did not provide any information on the fire properties and those who stated that the product was flame retardant without further specification. The mapping also indicates that the products from market leaders used by large general contractors provide products with documented fire properties. Conversations with two of Norway’s largest fire and rescue services shed light on several challenges connected to covering scaffolding and construction during firefighting activities. They pointed out that the covering could cause challenges and delays throughout their efforts. The covering gives a reduced visual overview of the spread of smoke and the location of doors and windows. This information is important for planning both extinguishing and smoke diver efforts. In addition, the covering can be an obstacle to the actual extinguishing effort, the use of an extinguishing agent and smoke divers and rescue efforts.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2023. , s. 96
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2023:130
Emneord [en]
Smoke spread, CFD simulation, review of regulations, scaffolding, covering, construction, fire safety, construction site, fire and rescue service.
Emneord [no]
Røykspredning, CFD-simulering, gjennomgang av regelverk, stillas, tildekking, konstruksjon, brannsikkerhet, byggeplass, brann- og redningstjeneste
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68680ISBN: 978-91-89896-17-8 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-68680DiVA, id: diva2:1822660
Merknad

Finansiert av: Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB) og Direktoratet forbyggkvalitet (DiBK)

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-12-27 Laget: 2023-12-27 Sist oppdatert: 2023-12-27bibliografisk kontrollert

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Fjærestad, Janne SirenMeraner, ChristophJiang, LeiStølen, Reidar

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