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Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-02 - Exposed wall and ceiling
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2396-1325
SINTEF, Norway.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7663-1525
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4831-7563
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2023 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 141, article id 103986Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is becoming increasingly popular due to its many advantages. However, it has been shown that exposed CLT can have a significant effect on fire dynamics and spread rates. Further studies are therefore needed to better understand the impact of CLT to fire safety. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) representing a modern office building have been performed, #FRIC-01 and #FRIC-02. This paper presents the second experiment, #FRIC-02, with exposed CLT on the back wall and the ceiling. The fire developed fast and spread across the room in less than 3.5 min from ignition of the wood crib on the floor and in 1.5 min after the ignition of the ceiling. Large external flames were observed, despite the compartment being well-ventilated. The 5-layer CLT, which comprised a 40 mm thick exposed outer layer and was face-bonded using a common European polyurethane adhesive, exhibited glue-line integrity failure and led to a second flashover after a significant period of decay. Subsequent layers of 20 mm also delaminated before the fire was manually extinguished after 3 h. Compared to #FRIC-01, the fire spread rate was faster, and temperatures, charring rates, heat release rates and external flames were higher. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2023. Vol. 141, article id 103986
Keywords [en]
Adhesives; Ceilings; Flashover; Laminating; Office buildings; Timber; Walls (structural partitions); Compartment fires; Condition; Cross laminated; Cross-laminated timber; External flame; Facade fire; Fire spread; Laminated timber; Large-scales; Second flashover; Fires
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67660DOI: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.103986Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85173336165OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-67660DiVA, id: diva2:1815503
Note

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Research Council of Norway through the program BRANNSIKKERHET, project number 294649, and by partners of the research centre FRIC.

Available from: 2023-11-29 Created: 2023-11-29 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved

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Sæter Bøe, AndreasBrandon, DanielSteen-Hansen, Anne

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