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Structural formation during bread baking in a combined microwave-convective oven determined by sub-second in-situ synchrotron X-ray microtomography
Lund University, Sweden.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2149-4586
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Lund University, Sweden.
Swiss Light Source, Switzerland.
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2023 (English)In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 173, article id 113283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new concept has been developed for characterizing the real-time evolution of the three-dimensional pore and lamella microstructure of bread during baking using synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SRµCT). A commercial, combined microwave-convective oven was modified and installed at the TOMCAT synchrotron tomography beamline at the Swiss Light Source (SLS), to capture the 3D dough-to-bread structural development in-situ at the micrometer scale with an acquisition time of 400 ms. This allowed characterization and quantitative comparison of three baking technologies: (1) convective heating, (2) microwave heating, and (3) a combination of convective and microwave heating. A workflow for automatic batchwise image processing and analysis of 3D bread structures (1530 analyzed volumes in total) was established for porosity, individual pore volume, elongation, coordination number and local wall thickness, which allowed for evaluation of the impact of baking technology on the bread structure evolution. The results showed that the porosity, mean pore volume and mean coordination number increase with time and that the mean local cell wall thickness decreases with time. Small and more isolated pores are connecting with larger and already more connected pores as function of time. Clear dependencies are established during the whole baking process between the mean pore volume and porosity, and between the mean local wall thickness and the mean coordination number. This technique opens new opportunities for understanding the mechanisms governing the structural changes during baking and discern the parameters controlling the final bread quality. © 2023 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2023. Vol. 173, article id 113283
Keywords [en]
Baking, Bread, Convective, Image analysis, In-situ, Microwave, Oven, Synchrotron X-ray microtomography, Food products, Light sources, Microwave heating, Porosity, Quality control, Tomography, Baking technology, Convective heating, Image-analysis, Microwave-heating, Pore volume
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65961DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113283Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85166305869OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-65961DiVA, id: diva2:1790961
Note

This work was funded by VINNOVA (Swedeńs Innovation Agency)[2019–02572], and additional internal RISE co-financing from 2020. Florian and Rajmund were financed by the Swedish Research Council [2019–03742]. Niklas gratefully acknowledges funding from the Swedish Research Council [2018–06378]. The computations and data handling were carried out under the following QIM-related projects: SNIC 2022/6–157 and LU 2022/2–22, which were enabled by resources provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at LUNARC at Lund University, partially funded by the Swedish Research Council through grant agreement [2018–05973].

Available from: 2023-08-24 Created: 2023-08-24 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved

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Isaksson, SvenÖhgren, CamillaRöding, MagnusLoren, NiklasRaaholt, Birgitta

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