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How Phosphorous Flame Retardant Additives Affect Benzoxazine-Based Monomer and Polymer Properties
University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.
Fraunhofer Institute, Germany; University of Bremen, Germany.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7001-9757
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6430-6602
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2023 (English)In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The phosphorous-based flame retardant additives poly(m-phenylene methylphosphonate) (PMP) and resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP) are reacted with bisphenol F and aniline–based benzoxazine (BF-a). DSC, rheological analysis, FT-IR, and soxhlet extraction reveal the covalent incorporation of both FR additives—initiating phenols in PMP structure as well as free phenols generated via transesterification reaction in the case of RDP. In contrast to PMP, RDP elongates the processing window but decreases the thermo–mechanical properties. Both additives increase the resistance in reactions against small flames with solely a phosphorous loading of 0.3 wt%, resulting in a V-0 rating and an improvement in the OI value by up to 2% for RDP and 4% for PMP. Both FRs reduce the heat release rate but increase the smoke production and the smoke toxicity in the case of RDP. © 2023 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc , 2023.
Keywords [en]
benzoxazine polymerization, fire retardants, flammability, mechanical properties, phosphorous, Additives, Aniline, Esters, Flame retardants, Phosphorus, Polymerization, Smoke, Benzoxazine, Bisphenol F, Flame-retardant additives, Methylphosphonates, Polymer properties, Rheological analysis, Soxhlet extraction, Transesterification reaction, Phenols
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65738DOI: 10.1002/mame.202300132Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85163380918OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-65738DiVA, id: diva2:1786215
Note

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Mat4Rail with the grant agreement number 777595), and of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (GreenLight, 03SX515E)

Available from: 2023-08-08 Created: 2023-08-08 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved

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Sandinge, AnnaBlomqvist, Per

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