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Impact of different Li-ion cell test conditions on thermal runaway characteristics and gas release measurements
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Uppsala University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2160-8034
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7163-1692
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3690-387x
Uppsala University, Sweden.
2023 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 68, article id 107785Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries requires further efforts in safety testing and evaluation. It is of utmost importance that the effects of different test conditions are understood, particularly for validation of computer models. While plenty of data from thermal runaway tests are available in literature, few are from large test series. The missing systematic approach to evaluate the impact of different test conditions implies uncertainty when comparing test results. In addition, the fast pace in cell development, including an increasing utilization of larger cells, necessitate the validation of previously published results. This work presents thermal runaway data from 37 tests on one type of large format prismatic lithium-ion cell (157 Ah). The tests are conducted in a closed pressure vessel with inert atmosphere as well as in an open setup below an exhaust collector hood. Further, six different thermal runaway trigger methods are employed as well as four different states of charge. Emphasis is put on the gases produced, a key aspect for safety evaluation. The results are compared with literature data and a new modified method is proposed for calculating the characteristic venting rate in a closed pressure vessel. It is concluded that the trigger method affects the gas production rate, mass loss, and maximum temperature of the cell as much as its state of charge. The large cell format potentially impacts the specific total gas production and enhances the effects of different trigger methods, but has a small impact on other evaluation parameters. No significant differences were observed in the test results due to the different test setups, apart from differences due to potential combustion of the released gases in ambient atmosphere. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2023. Vol. 68, article id 107785
Keywords [en]
Gas composition, Gas production, Large format cell, State of charge, Test apparatus, Trigger methods, Battery management systems, Cells, Charging (batteries), Cytology, Gases, Ions, Lithium-ion batteries, Safety testing, Gas compositions, Gas productions, Large-format, Li-ion cells, States of charges, Test condition, Thermal runaways, Trigger method, Pressure vessels
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64929DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2023.107785Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85160733022OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-64929DiVA, id: diva2:1766146
Note

Correspondence Address: Willstrand, O.; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Box 857, Sweden; email: ola.willstrand@ri.se; Funding details: Vinnova-2019-00064; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 51787-1; Funding details: Uppsala Universitet; Funding text 1: We thank David Raymand, Scania CV AB, and Tomas Verhallen and Seungbok Lee, Northvolt Labs, for input on the manuscript. This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project no. 51787-1 ). Partners within the project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Northvolt, Scania, and Uppsala University. We also acknowledge support from Batteries Sweden (grant no. Vinnova-2019-00064 ), and the StandUp for Energy consortium.; Funding text 2: We thank David Raymand, Scania CV AB, and Tomas Verhallen and Seungbok Lee, Northvolt Labs, for input on the manuscript. This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project no. 51787-1). Partners within the project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Northvolt, Scania, and Uppsala University. We also acknowledge support from Batteries Sweden (grant no. Vinnova-2019-00064), and the StandUp for Energy consortium.

Available from: 2023-06-12 Created: 2023-06-12 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Willstrand, OlaPushp, MohitAndersson, Petra

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