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Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4543-928X
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2160-8034
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6430-6602
Lund University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3690-387x
2023 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 139, article id 103829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the media. In particular, the toxic gases released upon combustion of electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has been a major concern. In this study, the results of six large-scale vehicle fire tests are presented including three electric vehicles, two internal combustion engine vehicles, and one electric vehicle with the battery pack removed. Additionally, separate battery component tests were performed. In two of the vehicle fire tests a sprinkler system was used to assess the effect of water application on the combustion gases. Furthermore, calculations of the heat release rate, peak heat release rate and total heat release were performed, as well as chemical analysis of gas and soot. Peak heat release rate and total heat release were affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly by the type of powertrain. Regarding the combustion gases, hydrogen fluoride represented the largest difference between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, battery specific metals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt and lithium were found in higher concentrations in the electric vehicle tests than in the internal combustion vehicle tests, in which larger quantities of lead were found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2023. Vol. 139, article id 103829
Keywords [en]
Combustion gas, Electric vehicle, Heat release rate, Large-scale fire test, Lithium-ion battery, Combustion, Enthalpy, Fires, Fluorine compounds, Gases, Internal combustion engines, Fire tests, Heat release, Internal combustion engine vehicles, Large scale fire tests, Large-scales, Peak heat release rates, Release rate, Vehicle fires, Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64934DOI: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.103829Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85160430610OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-64934DiVA, id: diva2:1765968
Note

Correspondence Address: Hynynen, J.; Research Institutes of Sweden RISE, Brinellgatan 4, Sweden; email: jonna.hynynen@ri.se; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 48193-1, 48193-2; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency [grant no. 48193-1, 48193-2].

Available from: 2023-06-12 Created: 2023-06-12 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved

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Hynynen, JonnaWillstrand, OlaBlomqvist, PerAndersson, Petra

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