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Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. (Societal Safety)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7744-2390
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. (Societal Safety)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9340-6768
University of Science and Technology of China, China.
2023 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, article id 104967Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023. Vol. 133, article id 104967
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Other Civil Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64962DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2022.104967OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-64962DiVA, id: diva2:1765054
Note

This project was financially supported by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC), and the Swedish Fire Research Board (BRANDFORSK), which are greatly acknowledged. 

Highlights:•Fire spread in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation was studied.•A simplified temperature model for tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed.•Criterion for fire spread to two nearby vehicles in tunnel was investigated.•Critical fire spread distance in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was discussed.

 

 

Available from: 2023-06-09 Created: 2023-06-09 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved

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Li, Ying ZhenIngason, Haukur

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