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Prevalence of microbiological contaminants in groundwater sources and risk factor assessment in Juba, South Sudan
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2015 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 515-516, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In low-income regions, drinking water is often derived from groundwater sources, which might spread diarrheal disease if they are microbiologically polluted. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of fecal contamination in 147 improved groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan and to assess potential contributing risk factors, based on bivariate statistical analysis. Thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) were detected in 66% of the investigated sources, including 95 boreholes, breaching the health-based recommendations for drinking water. A significant association (p<. 0.05) was determined between the presence of TTCs and the depth of cumulative, long-term prior precipitation (both within the previous five days and within the past month). No such link was found to short-term rainfall, the presence of latrines or damages in the borehole apron. However, the risk factor analysis further suggested, to a lesser degree, that the local topography and on-site hygiene were additionally significant. In summary, the analysis indicated that an important contamination mechanism was fecal pollution of the contributing groundwater, which was unlikely due to the presence of latrines; instead, infiltration from contaminated surface water was more probable. The reduction in fecal sources in the environment in Juba is thus recommended, for example, through constructing latrines or designating protection areas near water sources. The study results contribute to the understanding of microbiological contamination of groundwater sources in areas with low incomes and high population densities, tropical climates and weathered basement complex environments, which are common in urban sub-Saharan Africa. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V. , 2015. Vol. 515-516, p. 181-187
Keywords [en]
Drinking-water quality, Groundwater, Microbiological contamination, Risk factor analysis, Sub-Saharan Africa, Thermotolerant coliforms, Boreholes, Contamination, Factor analysis, Multivariant analysis, Population statistics, Potable water, Quality control, Risk analysis, Risk assessment, River pollution, Surface waters, Topography, Water quality, Coliforms, Contaminated surface water, Fecal contamination, Groundwater sources, High population density, Microbiological contaminations, Risk factors, Groundwater pollution, ground water, rain, surface water, diarrheal disease, drinking water, fecal coliform, microbiology, risk factor, Article, bacterium detection, controlled study, environmental sanitation, geographic mapping, hydrology, microbial contamination, nonhuman, physical chemistry, precipitation, priority journal, socioeconomics, Sudan, water contamination, water supply, water transport, environmental monitoring, prevalence, sanitation, statistics and numerical data, water pollution, Central Equatoria, Juba, South Sudan, Toilet Facilities, Water Microbiology
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Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60857DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.023Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84923383854OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-60857DiVA, id: diva2:1704372
Available from: 2022-10-18 Created: 2022-10-18 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved

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Mangold, Mikael

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