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A rubberized impact absorbing pavement can reduce the head injury risk in vulnerable road users: A bicycle and a pedestrian accident case study
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
University of Bologna, Italy.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1565-1554
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
University of Bologna, Italy.
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2022 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Vulnerable Road Users (VRU), including pedestrians and cyclists, are generally the least protected road users and are frequently missed in the planning process of preventive measures. Rubberized asphalt mixtures were originally developed as a possible environmentally friendly solution to recycle the End-of-Life Tires while making the pavements more durable. The objective of the current study was to explore the effects of increasing the rubber content of the common rubberized asphalt mixtures in reducing the head injuries risk for VRUs. Method: To achieve this purpose, four different sample series with 0, 14, 28, and 33 weight percent rubber in each were tested. A compressive test without permanent deformation and one with failure were performed on each sample series. The mechanical behavior of each set was modeled using a MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER material model in LS-Dyna and validated against a standard Head Injury Criterion (HIC) drop test. Ultimately, previously low-speed accident reconstructed cases, a bicycle and a pedestrian one, were used to assess the effect of varying the rubber content on reducing the head injury risk. Results: In the bicycle accident case, the risk of skull fracture was reduced from 0.99 to 0.29 when comparing the non-rubberized asphalt mixture with the 33% rubber mixture. In the same accident case, the risk of concussion, evaluated using the logistic regression method, was reduced from 0.97 in the non-rubberized mixture to 0.81 in the 33% rubber mixture. The initial conditions, linear and rotational velocities, were lower for the pedestrian case compared to the bicycle case (the bicycle case was more severe compared to the pedestrian case), which led to lower strains in the pedestrian case. In the pedestrian accident case, the risk of skull fracture was reduced from 1.00 in the non-rubberized mixture to 0.63 in the 33% rubber mixture, while the risk of concussion was reduced from 0.64 to 0.07. Conclusion: The rubberized asphalt mixtures could reduce the head injury risk for the studied cases when the rubber content in the asphalt mixture increases. © 2022 The Author(s). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Ltd. , 2022. Vol. 23, no 5, p. 315-320
Keywords [en]
bicycle accident, head injury, pedestrian accident, recycled rubber, Rubberized pavement, vulnerable road users, brain concussion, cycling, human, injury, pedestrian, prevention and control, skull fracture, traffic accident, Accidents, Traffic, Bicycling, Craniocerebral Trauma, Humans, Pedestrians, Skull Fractures
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60695DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2022.2067990Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85130924758OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-60695DiVA, id: diva2:1703779
Note

 Funding details: 765057; Funding details: VINNOVA, 2013-04465; Funding text 1: This work was supported by “BVFF–Bana väg för framtiden” under Grant number 2016-02; Sweden’s innovation agency, Vinnova under Grant number: D.nr.: 2013-04465); the SAFERUP! Project through the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation program Marie Skłodowska-Curie under Grant number 765057. Authors are grateful to the suppliers of the recycled crumb rubber (Ragn-sells through SDAB, Sweden) and bitumen used in this project.

Available from: 2022-10-14 Created: 2022-10-14 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved

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Makoundou, ChristinaJohansson, KenthWallqvist, Viveca

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