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Fished or farmed: Life cycle impacts of salmon consumer decisions and opportunities for reducing impacts
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1995-2338
University of Washington, USA.
2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 854, article id 158591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Salmon is a nutritious and popular food among consumers predominantly in wealthy countries around the world. Since the mid-1990s farmed salmon production has exceeded wild salmon harvest, and is now 80 % of total global salmon supply. The environmental impacts of farmed salmon are frequently discussed and consumers are faced with a multitude of choices even after deciding to have salmon for dinner: species, production method, origin, product form. We present life cycle impacts of fresh and frozen salmon products, originating in purse seine fisheries for pink salmon and gill net fisheries for sockeye salmon in Alaska, when sold on markets in Europe and the United States. Norwegian salmon products are then modelled to the same markets in fresh and frozen form, based on literature data. Impact categories included were greenhouse gas emissions, marine eutrophication, marine ecotoxicity and land use. A fish in, fish out ratio is also calculated and differences in content of nutrients and contaminants described. Frozen products from wild sockeye and pink salmon had the lowest emissions in both markets. For consumers in the U.S. and Europe, wild salmon products have 46–86 % and 12–71 % lower greenhouse gas emissions than farmed Norwegian salmon, respectively, depending on species and product form. Farmed salmon also had higher land use, marine ecotoxic and eutrophying emissions and fish in, fish out ratio. Important differences exist in nutritional and contaminant content between the three types of salmon production. Improvement options as well as an optimized supply chain are modelled showing greenhouse gas reduction opportunities of 40–50 % also for the best performing chains. Results can be used as a baseline for improved data collection and emission reductions. Recommendations for consumers, industry and policymakers who can facilitate and even drive development towards more sustainable salmon products are provided. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V. , 2023. Vol. 854, article id 158591
Keywords [en]
Aquaculture, Fisheries, Greenhouse gas emissions, LCA, Life Cycle Assessment, Wild, Commerce, Digital storage, Emission control, Eutrophication, Gas emissions, Greenhouse gases, Land use, Life cycle, Supply chains, Farmed salmon, Life cycle impacts, Pink salmon, Product forms, Sockeye salmon, Wild salmon, Fish
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60253DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158591Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85138091269OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-60253DiVA, id: diva2:1702282
Note

Funding details: Fetal Health Foundation, FHF; Funding details: Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas, 2016-00227; Funding details: Fiskeri - og havbruksnæringens forskningsfond, FHF; Funding text 1: The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: RH reports financial support was provided by Bristol Bay Regional Seafood Development Agency . FZ is employed by an institute that does research and contract work in her area of expertise commissioned by governmental and non-governmental organisations or by seafood companies. The institute has received funding for multiple private and publicly funded projects in the space of sustainable seafood production and consumption, including many projects related to farmed salmon. FZ was involved in research funded by the Norwegian Seafood Research Fund, FHF, in 2019, which led to the data for farmed salmon used in this study. FZ is also part of the sustainability advisory board of Nomad Foods. RH receives research funding from many groups that have interests in fisheries outcomes including environmental NGOs, foundations, governments and fishing industry groups.; Funding text 2: We are most grateful to the representatives of the fishing industry who spent time and effort on providing us with data for Alaskan salmon fishing and processing. The work of FZ was funded by the Swedish Research Council Formas (Grant No. 2016-00227 ), the work of RH was funded by the Bristol Bay Regional Seafood Development Agency and the Seafood Industry Research Fund .

Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved

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Ziegler, Friederike

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