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Evaluation of smoke gas toxicity and smoke density of bus interior materials
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7001-9757
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0009-0004-6100-6518
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6430-6602
2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 270-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Materials used for interior parts in buses are today fire classified according to UNECE Regulation 118, evaluating the horizontal and vertical burning rates and the melting behaviour. However, in recent accidents, the smoke has been identified as the critical parameter for deaths. An evaluation has been made of six materials used as interior parts in busses and is presented in this paper. Fire testing was conducted according to UNECE R 118 and smoke production including smoke gas toxicity was further evaluated with the smoke chamber test, EN ISO 5659-2 and EN 17084. All six tested materials fulfilled the requirements of UNECE R 118; however, most materials showed fire properties which are not desirable, such as dark smoke and melting of large burning pieces. The tests with the smoke chamber showed that all materials gave a very high smoke production, in fact a smoke density value of the highest possible for the equipment to measure. This occurred only after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that this high smoke production will, in case of fire in a bus, reduce the visibility, and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. © 2022 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd , 2023. Vol. 47, no 2, p. 270-
Keywords [en]
bus, fire, interior materials, regulation 118, smoke chamber, smoke density, smoke toxicity, Buses, Fires, Melting, Toxicity, Burning rate, Chamber tests, Classifieds, Melting behavior, Smoke production, Smoke
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60067DOI: 10.1002/fam.3095Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85135531894OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-60067DiVA, id: diva2:1697667
Note

 Funding details: Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, MSIP, NRF-2020R1A2C1009041, NRF-2020R1A5A1016518, NRF2021R1A2C1005359; Funding details: National Research Foundation of Korea, NRF; Funding text 1: This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (NRF-2020R1A2C1009041, NRF2021R1A2C1005359, and NRF-2020R1A5A1016518).

Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2024-03-03Bibliographically approved

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Sandinge, AnnaFredriksson, HenrikBlomqvist, Per

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