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Non-destructive testing of the glass strength in flat glass with indentationinduced cracks by Nonlinear Acoustic Wave method
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. (Glass)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2160-6979
Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
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2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Glass is a unique but unfortunately brittle material whose strength is primarily limited by the presenceof cracks on the surface [1]. The strength of glass is limited by the fact that very high stresses arise atthe crack tips when subjected to tensile load. In principle, without the presence of surface cracks, glasswould have a strength far exceeding many other structural materials, e.g., steel. The size and thedistribution of surface cracks vary greatly, which results in the strength of glass exhibit a great variationand thus requires that large safety margins must be applied for glass in practical applications, e.g., whenused as a load bearing building material.Today, there are no methods to determine the strength of flat glass non-destructively. Instead, thestrength is determined by different experimental methods requiring >10 samples for sufficient statistics.This procedure requires both lots of glassy materials and time. The future aim is to investigate if the useof nonlinear acoustic waves (NAW) could be an alternative for developing a standardized designstrength value. Developing a non-destructive inspection method for determining the glass strength is ascientific breakthrough that will have a great industrial impact for the sustainable development of glassmanufacturing.With the use of NAW it is possible to detect and quantify the defects in materials [2,3]. The nonlinearwaves are transmitted through the object and the nonlinear effects, caused by the defects in thematerial, corresponds to the level of damage in the material. This work present result from samplescontaining relatively precise defects. The defects were created using a microindenter with a sufficientload to cause indentation induced cracking in the glass. The indentations were created using a Vickersdiamond tip in the middle of commercial 4 mm float glass samples of the dimensions 10x10 cm2. Theapplied loads were 0.5N, 1N, 2N, 5N and 10N. The “damage value” of the sample series was thenquantified using the NAW technique. The fracture strength of the samples was correlated destructivelyusing a conventional ring-on-ring setup.The results show that there is a clear correlation between the indenter load, the damage value from theNAW inspection and the fracture strength. We noted that the standard deviation for the ring-on-ringtests for the 1N, 2N, 5N and 10N was low while the 0.5N and the reference samples presented a highstandard deviation. A possible explanation for this observation is that for 0.5N not all indents give radialcracks but in some cases the indentation produces only plastic deformation. The main conclusion fromthe research is that is possible to detect realistically large defects in glass using the non-destructive NAWmethod and these defects cannot be seen with the naked eye. Moreover, the results can be directlycorrelated with the strength of glass [4].

References[1] Veer, F.A. and Y.M. Rodichev, The structural strength of glass: hidden damage. Strength of Materials, 2011.43(3): p. 302-315. DOI: 10.1007/s11223-011-9298-5.[2] Persson, K., K. Haller, S. Karlsson, and M. Kozłowski, Non-destructive testing of the strength of glass by a nonlinearultrasonic method. Challenging Glass Conference Proceedings, 2020. 7. DOI: 10.7480/cgc.7.4498.[3] Haller, K., Doctoral Thesis: Acoustical measurements of material nonlinearity and nonequilibrium recovery.2008: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology.[4] Karlsson, S., L. Grund Bäck, S. Andersson, K. Haller, M. Kozłowski, and K. Persson, Strength classification of flatglass for better quality – validation of method by well-defined surface defects and strength testing, in ÅForskReport,19-479. 2021: http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.32992.40962.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2022.
Keywords [en]
glass, strength, nonlinear ultrasonics, non-destructive testing
National Category
Materials Engineering Applied Mechanics Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59882OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-59882DiVA, id: diva2:1686538
Conference
26th International Congress on Glass (ICG2022)
Projects
Tunnare och starkare glas för hållbar produktion och konsumtion
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00707ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 19-479
Note

Funding: Forskningsrådet Formas 2018-00707. Åforsk 19-479

Available from: 2022-08-10 Created: 2022-08-10 Last updated: 2023-03-14Bibliographically approved

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Karlsson, StefanGrund Bäck, Lina

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