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Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 5 – Experimental Study of Delamination of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in Fire
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7663-1525
FPInnovations, Canada.
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is such a material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the fire at locations where it is not protected against the fire. In that case, the CLT contributes to the fuel load of the fire and has an influence on the fire dynamics. Recent compartment fire tests have shown that bond line failures within cross-laminated timber caused by fire can result in sustained fires that do not extinguish naturally. Due to weakening of the bond line, glued lamellas of the exposed layer of the CLT can delaminate, which can result in a sudden exposure of cold timber to the high temperatures of a fire. This delamination results, therefore, in an increased combustion of exposed timber, and was previously shown to be the cause of continuous fully developed fires and fires that re-intensify after a period of decay. The study presented in this report aimed to (1) determine whether delamination in compartment fires can be avoided by using robust adhesives and (2) to assess the capability of a small scale test method to identify robust adhesives that do not lead to delamination of CLT in fires. The study involved a replication of fire conditions recorded in a recent compartment fire test performed earlier for this research project on Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings. These fire conditions were replicated in an intermediate scale furnace test with an exposed CLT specimen. The fire temperatures, oxygen concentration, incident radiant heat flux, CLT temperatures, charring rate and times of delamination resulting from the intermediate scale tests were similar to those of the compartment test, if the same CLT product was used in both specimens. It was shown that some CLT specimens made with other adhesives do not delaminate in the same conditions. The capability of a small scale Bunsen burner test to identify non-delaminating and delaminating adhesives was assessed. A comparative study showed that there is a good correspondence between results of the intermediate scale furnace test and the small scale Bunsen burner test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , p. 85
Series
NFPA Report number: FPRF-2018-05
Keywords [en]
CLT, Compartment fire, Exposed Wood, Tall Wood Buildings
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59256OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-59256DiVA, id: diva2:1659040
Available from: 2022-05-18 Created: 2022-05-18 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved

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Brandon, Daniel

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