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Sodium Reduction in Bouillon: Targeting a Food Staple to Reduce Hypertension in Sub-saharan Africa
CSIRO, Australia; Örebro University, Sweden.
CSIRO, Australia.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Örebro University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2606-9455
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5129-9338
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Nutrition, E-ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 9, article id 746018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bouillon cubes are a staple ingredient used in Sub-saharan African countries providing flavor enhancement to savory foods. Bouillon has been identified as a vehicle for fortification to overcome micronutrient deficiencies in Sub-saharan Africa. However, bouillon has a high sodium content (and in addition with other foods) contributes to dietary sodium intake above recommended guidelines. High dietary sodium intake is a key risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Africa has the highest rates of hypertension and CVD globally with nearly half the adult population above 25 years affected. This review presents current state of research on sodium reduction strategies in bouillon. The key challenge is to reduce sodium levels while maintaining optimal flavor at the lowest possible production cost to ensure bouillon continues to be affordable in Sub-saharan Africa. To produce lower sodium bouillon with acceptable flavor at low cost will likely involve multiple sodium reduction strategies; direct reduction in sodium, sodium replacement and saltiness boosting flavor technologies. Efforts to reduce the sodium content of bouillon in Sub-saharan Africa is a worthwhile strategy to: (i) lower the overall sodium consumption across the population, and (ii) deliver population-wide health benefits in a region with high rates of hypertension and CVD. Copyright © 2022 Archer, Cochet-Broch, Mihnea, Garrido-Bañuelos, Lopez-Sanchez, Lundin and Frank.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A. , 2022. Vol. 9, article id 746018
Keywords [en]
chloride salts, cross-modal interaction, flavor enhancement, flavor perception, fortification, reformulation
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58776DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2022.746018Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85124875211OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-58776DiVA, id: diva2:1642078
Note

Funding details: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, BMGF, INV-002988; Funding text 1: This work was supported by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation under Grant INV-002988.; Funding text 2: The authors acknowledge Debra Krause, Udayasika Piyasiri, Meryn Scott, and Gregory Maloney for assistance with literature and patent searches.

Available from: 2022-03-03 Created: 2022-03-03 Last updated: 2022-03-03Bibliographically approved

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Mihnea, MihaelaGarrido Banuelos, Gonzalo

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