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The effects of controlled nanotopography, machined topography and their combination on molecular activities, bone formation and biomechanical stability during osseointegration
University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4592-5851
University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
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2021 (English)In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 136, p. 279-290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The initial cellular and molecular activities at the bone interface of implants with controlled nanoscale topography and microscale roughness have previously been reported. However, the effects of such surface modifications on the development of osseointegration have not yet been determined. This study investigated the molecular events and the histological and biomechanical development of the bone interface in implants with nanoscale topography, microscale roughness or a combination of both. Polished and machined titanium implants with and without controlled nanopatterning (75 nm protrusions) were produced using colloidal lithography and coated with a thin titanium layer to unify the chemistry. The implants were inserted in rat tibiae and subjected to removal torque (RTQ) measurements, molecular analyses and histological analyses after 6, 21 and 28 days. The results showed that nanotopography superimposed on microrough, machined, surfaces promoted an early increase in RTQ and hence produced greater implant stability at 6 and 21 days. Two-way MANOVA revealed that the increased RTQ was influenced by microscale roughness and the combination of nanoscale and microscale topographies. Furthermore, increased bone-implant contact (BIC) was observed with the combined nanopatterned machined surface, although MANOVA results implied that the increased BIC was mainly dependent on microscale roughness. At the molecular level, the nanotopography, per se, and in synergy with microscale roughness, downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In conclusion, controlled nanotopography superimposed on microrough machined implants promoted implant stability during osseointegration. Nanoscale-driven mechanisms may involve attenuation of the inflammatory response at the titanium implant site. Statement of Significance: The role of combined implant microscale and nanotopography features for osseointegration is incompletely understood. Using colloidal lithography technique, we created an ordered nanotopography pattern superimposed on screwshaped implants with microscale topography. The midterm and late molecular, bone-implant contact and removal torque responses were analysed in vivo. Nanotopography superimposed on microrough, machined, surfaces promoted the implant stability, influenced by microscale topography and the combination of nanoscale and microscale topographies. Increased bone-implant contact was mainly dependent on microscale roughness whereas the nanotopography, per se, and in synergy with microscale roughness, attenuated the proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression. It is concluded that microscale and nanopatterns provide individual as well as synergistic effects on molecular, morphological and biomechanical implant-tissue processes in vivo. © 2021 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acta Materialia Inc , 2021. Vol. 136, p. 279-290
Keywords [en]
Colloidal lithography, Cytokines, Gene expression, Implant, Microroughness, Nanotopography, Osseointegration, Removal torque, Titanium
National Category
Biomaterials Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56947DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2021.10.001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85117085120OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-56947DiVA, id: diva2:1612837
Note

 Funding details: ALFGBG-725641; Funding details: Västra Götalandsregionen; Funding details: Stiftelsen Handlanden Hjalmar Svenssons; Funding details: Svenska Sällskapet för Medicinsk Forskning, SSMF; Funding details: IngaBritt och Arne Lundbergs Forskningsstiftelse; Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR, 2018-02891; Funding details: Tokyo University of Agriculture, TUA; Funding text 1: Financial support was provided by the Swedish Research Council ( 2018-02891 ), the BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy , the Västra Götaland Region , the Swedish state under the agreement between the Swedish government and the county councils, the ALF agreement ( ALFGBG-725641 ), the T UA/Region Västra Götaland research grant , the Stiftelsen Handlanden Hjalmar Svensson , the IngaBritt and Arne Lundberg Foundation , the Eivind o Elsa K: son Sylvan Foundation and the Area of Advance Materials of Chalmers and GU Biomaterials within the Strategic Research Area initiative launched by the Swedish Government . F.A.S was supported by the Svenska Sällskapet för Medicinsk Forskning (SSMF) postdoctoral scholarship. The sponsors were not involved in the study design; data acquisition; or interpretation, writing or submission of the article.; Funding text 2: Financial support was provided by the Swedish Research Council (2018-02891), the BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, the V?stra G?taland Region, the Swedish state under the agreement between the Swedish government and the county councils, the ALF agreement (ALFGBG-725641), the TUA/Region V?stra G?taland research grant, the Stiftelsen Handlanden Hjalmar Svensson, the IngaBritt and Arne Lundberg Foundation, the Eivind o Elsa K: son Sylvan Foundation and the Area of Advance Materials of Chalmers and GU Biomaterials within the Strategic Research Area initiative launched by the Swedish Government. F.A.S was supported by the Svenska S?llskapet f?r Medicinsk Forskning (SSMF) postdoctoral scholarship. The sponsors were not involved in the study design; data acquisition; or interpretation, writing or submission of the article.

Available from: 2021-11-19 Created: 2021-11-19 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved

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