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Sikkerhetsbehov for kullgriller i restauranter
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5143-6854
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
2020 (norsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The RISE report 2019:04 «Charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants – Fire safety and documentation requirements» [1] investigated regulations and documental demands tied to charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants in Norway. A part of the conclusion in this report emphasized the need for, through physical testing, mapping whether existing test standards covers the safety requirements of charcoal ovens in restaurants. NS-EN 13240:2001 «Roomheaters fired with solid fuel. Requirements and test methods» [2] was chosen as a relevant test standard. Three test ovens (a closed test oven, a dummy oven and an open test oven) was produced at RISE Fire Research. Their construction with regard to insulation capabilities, materials and dimensions was based on existing charcoal ovens placed on the Norwegian marked. This was done to achieve an objective depiction of the issue, without the need for a specific brand of ovens. Restaurant oven charcoal was utilized to achieve as real heat development as possible in the test ovens. The test layout is based on NS-EN 12340:2001, with a test rigg constructed of two «safety walls», ceiling and floor attached with thermocouples. Temperatures from the test oven are registered in the safety walls at several positions according to a standardised grid, and in the ceiling and the floor each have one single measurement position measuring warmest point. Thermocouples in the chimney and exhaust duct measured the flue gas temperatures transported to the exhaust system. Four different tests were conducted, where the first one was a standardized safety test including the closed oven model. The second test was the same safety test setup with the dummy oven besides the closed oven. The dummy contained a built-in propane burner to simulate the heat load from a real oven. The purpose was to simulate two ovens placed next to each other. The third test was an overload test on the closed test oven with 150 % fuel load and higher refuelling frequency. The last test was a test of the open test oven. The safety test method described in NS-EN 13240:2001 is suitable to test the level of stable maximal temperature in the surrounding combustible materials, in the same way as for roomheaters, which the method is designed for. The method addresses safety aspects such as surface temperatures and handles on the oven. Tests show that the temperatures developed in the ovens have the potential to breech the temperature criterion given by the test standard, and therefore contribute to the ignition of surrounding combustible materials. Such situations pose a fire risk and safety measures regarding this aspect must be documented by the producer. NS-EN13240:2001 does not cover temperatures for exhaust duct and the production of sparks and their possible spread to combustible materials. These are important safety aspects which must be addressed when documenting the fire safety of restaurant grills. Tests show that sparks are created in the oven, including from restaurant charcoal fuel, and are transported into the exhaust duct, and out through the opening of the grill door. Together with high flue gas temperatures in the exhaust duct and deposits of soot and cooking oil this pose a fire risk. Documentation must therefore be presented, showing that the oven is equipped with measures (for instance spark screen) which guards the exhaust duct from sparks to a satisfactory degree. Operators of the oven must receive adequate training and must operate the closed oven with caution, as to avoid incidents with sparks being released though the door. The placement of ovens next to each other does not seem to increase the heat load on surrounding walls but may lead to increased temperatures in between the ovens. The consequences of temperature increases must be documented. Tests show that overloading with fuel and intensifying the refuelling intervals can lead to increased temperatures in the oven, which can affect materials and welding seams. Overloading can also affect the temperatures towards surrounding walls and exhaust ducts and therefore may affect fire safety negatively. NS-EN 13240:2001 requires the producer to documents how the oven is constructed and of what materials, and that the welding seams are dimensioned for the materials used. It is recommended that the producer documents the safety level of the oven materials with an overload test. It must also be documented that the exhaust ducts in which the flue gas are transported are constructed to handle the potential temperatures that can arise, including erroneous use.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2020. , s. 75
Serie
RISE Rapport ; 2020:83
Emneord [no]
Charcoal burning ovens, kitchen exhaust systems, ventilation systems, commercial kitchen, fire safety, kullgrill, avtrekkskanal, ventilasjonskanal, storkjøkken, brannsikkerhet, brannforebyggende, resturantkjøkken.
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-53492ISBN: 978-91-89167-68-1 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-53492DiVA, id: diva2:1563380
Merknad

Finansiert av: Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB) og Direktoratet for byggkvalitet (DiBK)

Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-06-10 Laget: 2021-06-10 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-02

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