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Experimental study on flame characteristics of double fires in a naturally ventilated tunnel: Flame merging, flame tilt angle and flame height
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
University of Science and Technology of China, China.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7744-2390
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9340-6768
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2021 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 114, article id 103912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of fire tests was carried out to investigate the diffusion flame characteristics of double fires generated from separated burners in a naturally ventilated tunnel, considering different heat release rates and fire separation distances. The results show that the flame tilt angle, as well as the horizontal projected flame length, first increases with fire separation distance and then remains constant, but the vertical flame length first decreases and then remains constant, which is different from two fires in free spaces where flames do not tilt when the separation distance is relatively long. This difference is caused by the non-dimensional fire induced air flow velocity in the tunnel, which is mainly related to the tunnel cross-section dimensions and burner radius. Three regions can be identified, i.e. flame vertical merging, plume vertical merging and non-merging with flame tilted. The critical flame merging separation distance, estimated by the flame merging probability, is greater than that of two fires in an open environment due to the fire-induced air flows. The merging flame height is lower than that of a single fire with a same heat release rate. A correlation was proposed to estimate flame height of two fires in a tunnel by the modified non-dimensional heat release rate using an air entrainment perimeter as the characteristic length. This work enhances the understanding of diffusion flame behaviors of double fires in naturally ventilated tunnels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2021. Vol. 114, article id 103912
Keywords [en]
Double fires, Flame length, Flame merging, Flame tilt angle, Tunnel fire safety
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-53133DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2021.103912Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85105869698OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-53133DiVA, id: diva2:1557660
Note

Funding details: Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, CX2320007001; Funding details: University of Science and Technology of China, USTC; Funding details: National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC, 51776192; Funding details: Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, WK2320000048; Funding text 1: This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51776192), Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (No. CX2320007001), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant (No. WK2320000048 ) and USTC Tang Scholar. Acknowledgement also to Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) at RISE for the support.

Available from: 2021-05-26 Created: 2021-05-26 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved

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Li, Ying ZhenIngason, Haukur

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