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In the eye of the beholder: Expected and actual liking for apples with visual imperfections
SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0408-3910
Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
2021 (English)In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 87, article id 104065Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Food appearance is an important determinant for expected and actual liking, but some food is not even available for purchase due to visual imperfections. In two studies conducted with 130 participants in Sweden, we measured consumers’ expected and actual liking for different apples with three types of visual imperfection (color, shape and damage). We investigated the effects of apples’ visual characteristics on expected liking and whether or not this relationship is mediated by emotions and attitudes. Secondly, we investigated how actual liking differed between the groups of apples, and how it differed from expected liking. Results indicated that attitudes are the strongest mediator between visual characteristics of apples and expected liking. Moreover, participants indicated higher expected liking for color and shape imperfections relative to damaged apples. Results from the second study indicated a significant difference between expected and actual liking, and less variability in actual liking between the apple groups relative to the variability in expected liking. It can be concluded that the visual characteristics of apples influence both expected and actual liking, the practical implication for retailers being a need to carefully distinguish between the different types of visual sub-optimality and to keep the products that have a higher chance to be chosen (sub-optimal in shape and colour). Thus, these results generate a clearer understanding of visual sub-optimality, and can be incorporated in strategies for reducing food waste in stores. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2021. Vol. 87, article id 104065
Keywords [en]
Emotions, Expected and actual liking, Food, Moderation, Visual characteristics
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-48765DOI: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104065Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85090329866OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-48765DiVA, id: diva2:1466890
Note

Funding details: Svenska ForskningsrÃ¥det Formas; Funding text 1: The study was conducted as part of the project COnsumers in a SUStainable food supply chain (COSUS) funded by the Swedish Research Council Formas . The authors would like to thank RISE, Sweden’s research institute and innovation partner, for working with us and making their research laboratory in Gothenburg available for this study. Finally, we would like to thank our colleague, Jacob Dalgaard Christensen, for his contribution with writing the R-code for the mediation analysis.

Available from: 2020-09-14 Created: 2020-09-14 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Normann, Anne

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