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Total cost of ownership model and significant cost parameters for the design of electric bus systems
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0755-3911
2020 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 3262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Without experiences of electric buses, public transport authorities and bus operators have faced questions about how to implement them in a cost-effective way. Simple cost modelling cannot show how costs for different types of electric buses differ between different routes and timetables. Tools (e.g., HASTUS, PtMS, and optibus) which can analyse such details are complicated, time consuming to use, and provide insufficient insights into the mechanisms that influence the cost. This paper therefore proposes a method for how to calculate total cost of ownership, for different types of electric buses, in a way which can predict how the cost varies based on route and timetable. The method excludes factors which cause minor cost variations in an almost random manor, in order to better show the fundamental mechanisms influencing different costs. The method will help in finding ways to reduce the cost and help to define a few cases which deserve a deep analysis with more complete tools. Testing of the method in a Swedish context showed that the results are in line with other theoretical and practical studies, and how the total cost of ownership can vary depending on the variables. © 2020 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG , 2020. Vol. 13, no 12, article id 3262
Keywords [en]
Charging strategy, Cost model, Electric bus, Public transport, Sustainability, TCO, Total cost of ownership, Buses, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Electric automobiles, Scheduling, Bus operators, Cost effective, Cost modelling, Cost parameters, Cost variations, Fundamental mechanisms, Public transport authority, Cost benefit analysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-48303DOI: 10.3390/en13123262Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85090053163OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-48303DiVA, id: diva2:1465100
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 41411-1; Funding text 1: Funding: This research was until June 2018 funded by the Swedish Energy Agency and in-kind co-funding organizations in the project “Decision support for implementing electric buses in public transport”, with grant number 41411-1. After that date, the Swedish universities Blekinge Institute of Technology and Chalmers University of Technology have funded the research.

Available from: 2020-09-08 Created: 2020-09-08 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved

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