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Skiftning av åkermark för ett effektivare jordbruk
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0474-4456
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Antalet gårdar i Sverige minskar medan deras storlek ökar för att kunna hålla verksamheten konkurrenskraftig på marknaden. En vanlig situation är att gården vill expandera snabbare än det finns tillgänglig mark nära gårdscentrum. Detta leder till att gården får längre avstånd till sin åkermark. Detta extra avstånd har en kostnad, både för gårdens lönsamhet och för miljön.

En föregående pilotstudie studerade kostnaden för transport av skörd och stallgödsel (spannmål, vall och stallgödsel). Studien visade att kostnader för transporter blir minst halverad om man byter till mark som ligger närmare gården. Denna studie studerade endast fyra gårdar, och inkluderade inte sociala aspekter.

Detta fortsättningsprojekt syftar till att få en bättre insikt i de tekniska (geografiska) och även sociala faktorer kopplade till markbyte. Den tekniska delen av projektet innebär utveckling av ett verktyg för att 1) räkna avstånd mellan gårdscentrum och fält i hela Sverige, 2) identifiera bästa matchningar för markbyte mellan gårdar, och därmed minimera avstånd mellan gårdscentrum och fält, och 3) uppskatta potentiella besparingar av drivmedel och kostnader kopplade till markbyte.

Våra resultat visar att verktyget ger ett stabilt underlag som beslutstöd. Däremot behövs mer studier för att komma överens om det bästa sättet att implementera verktyget i Sverige, särskilt angående ägarskap, affärsmodell och utveckling av nya funktioner. Den teoretiska potentialen för markbyte mellan två gårdar är uppskattad till 12,4 %.

Den sociala delen av projektet undersökte lantbrukares attityder till markbyte. I semi-strukturerade intervjuer med lantbrukare, och seminarium med andra intressenter, undersökte vi hinder, förutsättningar, samt potential för implementering av verktyget. Våra resultat visar att verktyget var positivt mottaget men att det finns fler faktorer att ta hänsyn till t.ex. jordart, odlingsmetod och förtroende.

Abstract [en]

The number of farms in Sweden is decreasing while the size is increasing as most farms grow bigger in areal in order to remain competitive on the market. However, this situation set pressure on farmers looking to expand. It is rare for farmers to find available land close to their farm and therefore start to cultivate land further away. The extra distance has a cost, both for the farmers’ profitability and for the environment. Previous study looked at four particular farms focusing on the cost related to the harvest (cereal or forage). By simulating an exchange of land to closer ones, the cost for transport of the harvest was at least halved in the four cases. The study looked mostly at the technical aspect and included only the four cases.

Therefore, this project aims to have a broader perspective, both in term of geography and also by looking at the social factors related to land exchange. During the project, a tool has been developed to calculate on a national level the distance between each field and the farm cultivating it. The tool is also used to minimise the distance between field and farm by allowing fields to be exchanged between farmers. Moreover, the tool has been used to estimate the potential for diesel use and cost reduction related to land exchange. Using the tool as ground for discussion, semi-structured interviews have been performed with farmers to understand the hinders and driving forces for land exchange between each other. During these interviews, the potential for implementing the tool was also discussed.

The theoretical potential if limiting the exchange of land only between two parties at a time would be 12.4 %. Moreover, this number would decrease when considering the practical and social barriers such as the soil characteristics, the different cultivation methods (organic/conventional, no-till) and trust between farmers.

The development of an application for optimal land exchange will require not only a robust model for distance calculation and optimization of land exchange but also a well-developed and user-friendly interface. Depending on how the application will be used, by single farmers or by consultants and advisers, different versions of an application may be required.

The tool developed during the project has been positively received both by farmers during the interviews and also by other stakeholders during the concluding seminar. It gives a solid basis and acts as decision support tool. More is needed to agree on the best way to implement it in Sweden, in particular looking at the ownership, business model, and the development of new functions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019.
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:43
Keywords [en]
Energy efficiency, energy use, logistics, optimization, crop production, farm, agriculture, land exchange
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42265OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-42265DiVA, id: diva2:1379713
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2019-12-17

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Engström, Jonas

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