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CLOSE-RTK 3: High-performance Real-TimeGNSS Services
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents the results from the third project of the CLOSE effort (Chalmers,Lantmäteriet, Onsala, RISE). The first project, CLOSE-RTK, investigated error sources inNetwork-RTK and simulated how to improve the performance. The results were used as a basisfor the densification, improvement and development of SWEPOS(https://swepos.lantmateriet.se/ ) during the last decade. The second project investigated how theionosphere effects the Network-RTK services.When the SWEPOS network are densified, the measurement uncertainty in the services arereduced. Thus, there is a need to continuously work in order to minimize effects from allsignificant error sources. Based on indications and experience from some 25 years operation ofSWEPOS, we have here focused on effects and error sources related to GNSS referencestations. Several new GNSS monuments are installed in the vicinity of the new Twin telescopesat the Onsala Space Observatory. Four good locations for permanent GNSS installations wereequipped with steel-grid masts serving as monuments for permanent GNSS installations. In twoof these, the installation has been untouched over a period extending over one year, while twohave been used to experiment with different installations of antennas, radomes, masthead, andthe environment of the receiving systems. The purpose of CLOSE-RTK III has been both toimprove the knowledge of the station-dependent effects in SWEPOS, and to quantify sucheffects by analyzing the collected observational data. Thus, the first work package has had theultimate goal to provide knowledge and recommendations when building a new GNSS stationand choosing the equipment to be used. The first work package also addresses the issue of somespecific station-dependent effects such as the monument stability as a function of airtemperature and sun radiation. The most important and significant results from these testsrelates to the effects of using different radomes and antennas. The influence of adding a tribrachbetween the antenna and the mast as well as adding a microwave-absorbing plate at the stationshas been investigated in detail. Furthermore, this study has looked in to the problem with birdslanding on the antennas in order to keep watch over the surrounding. A bird-detection algorithmhas been developed within the project.In second work package we investigate the necessity, and possibility, to develop methods forstation-dependent calibration in addition to the antenna-specific calibrations used to today.Since the performance of positioning services, e.g. Network-RTK, is steadily improved the errorsources related to the continuously operating reference stations may soon be limiting factors forfurther improvement of performance. Station dependent effects are thus important in highaccuracy GNSS positioning. Electrical coupling between the antenna and its near-fieldenvironment changes the characteristics of the antenna from what has been determined in e.g.absolute robot or chamber calibration.When using the presently available antenna models GNSS determination of the heightdifference between the SWEPOS pillar antennas and the surrounding reference antennas gave ~10 mm too low heights for the SWEPOS antennas. This error was derived from a comparisonwith conventional terrestrial surveys. The result varied significantly between days, and alsobetween different processing strategies. PCO/PCV errors derived from GNSS phase differencesshowed clear elevation-angle signatures that may cause systematic differences in the estimatedheight component and atmospheric delay, respectively. Electromagnetic coupling between theantenna and a metal plate below the antennas is probably contributing to the systematicPCO/PCV errors found.Starting already in 2008 and continued in this project we have developed methods andcarried out in-situ station calibration of the core permanent reference stations in SWEPOS. The station calibration intends to determine the electrical center of the GNSSantenna, as well as the PCV (phase center variations) when the antenna is installed at aSWEPOS station. The purpose of the calibration has been to examine the site-dependenteffects on the height determination as well as to establish site-dependent PCVs as acomplement to absolute calibrations of the antenna-radome pair.Our results have implications on a number of practical applications. To be mentioned isdetermination of the “local tie” between the GNSS reference point and the one from otherinstrumentation at fundamental geodetic stations. Usually, the L1 observable are used whileobserving the local GNSS networks in order to get as precise results as possible. But when usedin the IGS, the L3 (ionosphere-free) observable is used and also solving for troposphere delays.Thus, an error at the 1 cm level is easily introduced due to PCO/PCV errors.Since there are also other concepts emerging for precise real-time positioning, besides the so farused VRS-concept, the potential of these new concepts (MAC and PPP) are investigated inwork package three. Basically, the requirements from the infrastructure are invariant of thechosen concept if we aim for a certain level of performance. There is e.g. an ongoingdevelopment of real time methods for Precise Point Positioning (PPP) based on local or regionalaugmentation systems often referred to as PPP-RTK. The present development also includednew satellite signals and systems, thus, make available a three-frequency technique. The reportalso provides a schematic plan how such a service, based on PPP-RTK or rather Network-RTK,could be provided in the region of the Baltic Sea.Finally, the design of a high precision positioning service for the Baltic Sea are investigated.Motivation is that international vessel-traffic could be further optimized if the uncertainty ofvertical component in the navigation could be improved. The performance in the “Baltic Seanavigation service” would benefit from installation of some few off-shore GNSS referencestations that would be possible to locate to relatively shallow waters!

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 172
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:101
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40747ISBN: 978-91-89049-32-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-40747DiVA, id: diva2:1368012
Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved

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