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Frost Resistance of Concrete – Experience from Long-Term Field Exposure
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
Lund University, Sweden.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1904-7426
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents the results from a research project financed by Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Administration, co-financed by Cementa AB.

The purpose of this project is to investigate concrete specimens exposed to a de-icing salt highway environment at Highway 40 close to Borås after about 20 years. The project work was divided into two parts: Part One for frost resistance of concrete and Part Two for chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion.

In Part One, more than 100 types of concrete mixes with different binder types/combinations, water-binder ratios (w/b) and air contents exposed at three field test sites were examined for external and internal frost damage by measurements of the changes in volume of, and in ultrasonic transmission time through, the specimens. Furthermore, some laboratory tests were carried out to supply necessary data for modelling and identify the possible mechanisms causing frost damage.

The results show clearly that the highway environment is the most aggressive with regard to external frost damage. Further, the results from this study show that the existence of entrained air and the water-binder ratio are the main parameters influencing the resistance of concrete to external salt-frost damage. Furthermore, the concrete mixes with CEM I, CEM I + 5 % silica, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-S and CEM I + 30 % slag as binder with entrained air and a water/binder ratio of 0.4 or below, has good resistance to internal and external frost damage. Results show that concrete containing large amounts of slag as part of the binder (CEM III/B) have the severest scaling, irrespective of its content of entrained air.

Comparing results from laboratory testing of salt-frost resistance in accordance with SS 13 72 44 (the ‘Slab test’ in CEN/TS 12390-9) with results after nineteen years’ exposure at the highway exposure site shows that the laboratory standard classifies most concrete qualities correctly.

However, there is an indication that the laboratory test method may overestimate the scaling resistance of concrete containing a medium to high content of slag as part of the binder. This indicates a need to consider a revision of the slab test procedure so that aging processes is better taken into consideration. A somewhat longer preconditioning time with at least partially an increased carbon dioxide content would for example lead to that the effect of carbonation is better reflected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 153
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:65
Keywords [en]
Concrete, field exposure, salt-frost resistance, chloride ingress, corrosion, durability
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37574ISBN: 978-91-88907-09-7 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-37574DiVA, id: diva2:1282289
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-01-24

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Mueller, Urs

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1718192021222320 of 36
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