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Saltiness enhancement: Impact of acid added to bread with heterogeneously distributed sodium chloride
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-2642-283x
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-6877-7858
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-1258-4448
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-7085-1287
Vise andre og tillknytning
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 176, artikkel-id 114557Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The current global sodium consumption exceeds recommended daily intakes and there is a great need to reduce the sodium content in foods for a healthier society. The current study investigated the effect of combining sensory interaction principles and heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in bread on sensory properties, structure, and NaCl distribution. Breads were prepared in three different arrangements of NaCl distribution: homogenous, layered, and layered with lactic acid. Within each arrangement, four NaCl levels were tested. The breads were evaluated by a sensory panel for perceived saltiness, sourness, and qualitative texture, measured for stiffness, and the NaCl distribution was determined by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Perceived saltiness was significantly enhanced in breads beyond heterogeneous NaCl distribution when lactic acid was added. Stiffness measurements were affected by layering of bread, the layers without NaCl were stiffer with an increase in overall salt concentration. The heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in layered breads could be visualised by XFM and textural consequences of layering bread are discussed. The current study demonstrates the potential of combining principles of pulsation of taste and sensory interactions together to enhance salt perception, and hence suggesting the approach as a possible further strategy for NaCl reduction in bread.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Academic Press , 2023. Vol. 176, artikkel-id 114557
Emneord [en]
Heterogeneous salt distribution, Perception, Pulsation, Salt, Sensory interactions, Fluorescence microscopy, Food products, Lactic acid, Sensory perception, Stiffness, Textures, 'current, Heterogeneous distributions, Recommended daily intakes, Sensory panels, Sensory properties, Stiffness measurements, X-ray fluorescence microscopy, Sodium chloride
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Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63980DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2023.114557Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85147538587OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-63980DiVA, id: diva2:1738786
Merknad

Correspondence Address: Niimi J, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden. Funding details: Västra Götalandsregionen, RUN 2020–00378; Funding details: VINNOVA, 2020–01824; Funding text 1: The measurements indicated only a little NaCl migration after baking, freezing, storage and thawing, since sharp changes in the chlorine signals were not observed, but rather a gradual transition between the layers (Fig. S6). Also, the signal did not drop to zero in the centre of the layers with no added NaCl. The amount of NaCl migration appeared to be so small that it is not expected to have a significant impact on the perceived saltiness of the breads. Additional measurements were performed using ICP-OES and IC to investigate if the migration of sodium is larger than the observed chlorine migration in the XFM measurements. The migration of sodium was similar or less to that of chlorine, which supported the conclusions drawn from the XFM results (for methodology and a summary of the ICP-OES/IC results see S2.0 and Table S2 in the supplementary material). Given that the ICP-OES/IC measurements showed that chlorine migrated in a similarly strong manner to sodium, it is reasonable to assume that the sodium distribution was adequately represented by chlorine. These measurements with XFM demonstrated its applicability in measuring chlorine ions in bread. Previous applications of XFM were on plant materials such as leaves, seedlings, barley grains, and rice kernels to measure distribution of ions such as zinc, calcium, potassium, and manganese among others. The results demonstrate that XFM can be a useful tool in confirming heterogenous distribution of chlorine ions of NaCl in processed food stuffs, such as breads.This study was performed under the project ReduSalt – Salt Reduction in Foods, a project funded by Sweden's Innovation Agency (Vinnova), grant number 2020–01824. The financial support by Region Västra Götaland, Sweden, grant number RUN 2020–00378, is also gratefully acknowledged.  Funding text 2: This study was performed under the project ReduSalt – Salt Reduction in Foods, a project funded by Sweden's Innovation Agency (Vinnova) , grant number 2020–01824 . The financial support by Region Västra Götaland, Sweden , grant number RUN 2020–00378 

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-02-22 Laget: 2023-02-22 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-25bibliografisk kontrollert

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Niimi, JunAhlinder, AstridNilsson Pingel, TorbenNiimi, ClaudiaHöglund, EvelinaÖhgren, CamillaLoren, NiklasNielsen, Tim

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