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Quality measurement methods for video assisting refereeing systems
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5060-9402
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9971-2432
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9839-7488
FIFA Fédération Internationale de Football Association, Switzerland.
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2023 (English)In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 26, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Changes in the footballing world’s approach to technology and innovation, along with major advancements in broadcasting contributed to the decision by the International Football Association Board to introduce Video Assistant Referees in 2018. The change meant that under strict protocols referees could use video replays to review decisions in the event of a “clear and obvious error” or a “serious missed incident”. At the time of writing 48-Member Associations have introduced the Video Assistant Referees protocol in at least one of their tournaments and there are many technology providers who work with organisers to implement the Video Assistant Referees systems. To ensure that the use of Video Assistant Referees has a positive effect on the game, Fédération Internationale de Football Association collaborated with the RISE Research Institutes of Sweden to develop objective test methods that could be used to ensure that a system can provide an adequate solution. Each provider must be able to pass requirements that ensure that they can deal with the challenges of processing, coding, decoding, synchronising, and re-formatting of the broadcast feeds. This article will describe the development of the test methods and illustrate some initial results from a test event on Video Assistant Referees system candidates. The methods have shown to be robust and appropriate for their intended purpose and will be developed over the years to ensure the quality of Video Assistant Referees. The developed measurement methods are general and can be applied to other broadcast and video systems as well as to other sports. © 2023, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023. Vol. 26, no 1, article id 17
Keywords [en]
Broadcast, Football, Latency, Measurements, Synchronicity, Video assistant referee (VAR), Video quality, Measurement methods, Quality measurements, Technology providers, Test method, Use of video, Video assistant referee, Sports
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64303DOI: 10.1007/s12283-023-00408-6Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85150219324OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-64303DiVA, id: diva2:1755323
Note

 Article; Correspondence Address: Brunnström, K.; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden ABSweden; email: kjell.brunnstrom@ri.se; Funding details: VINNOVA, 2021-02107, C2020/2-2; Funding text 1: Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. This project was funded as a development project together with FIFA during 2018–2020. RISE has received grants from FIFA during the development project. The research was also partly supported by internal funding of RISE.; Funding text 2: We acknowledge the invaluable help and assistance from Börje Andrén, Pär Johansson, Andreas Langell, Benny Norling, and Anders Gavler for the successful completion of the project. This research has been partly supported by the Sweden´s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, dnr. 2021-02107) through the Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2) and RISE internal funding.; Funding text 3: We acknowledge the invaluable help and assistance from Börje Andrén, Pär Johansson, Andreas Langell, Benny Norling, and Anders Gavler for the successful completion of the project. This research has been partly supported by the Sweden´s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA, dnr. 2021-02107) through the Celtic-Next project IMMINENCE (C2020/2-2) and RISE internal funding.

Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved

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Brunnström, KjellDjupsjöbacka, AndersOzolins, Oskars

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