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Bågenholm-Ruuth, E., Sanchis-Sebastiá, M., Hollinger, N., Teleman, A., Larsson, P. T. & Wallberg, O. (2024). Transforming post-consumer cotton waste textiles into viscose staple fiber using hydrated zinc chloride. Cellulose, 31(2), 737-748
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transforming post-consumer cotton waste textiles into viscose staple fiber using hydrated zinc chloride
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2024 (English)In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 737-748Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large amounts of cellulose-based waste textiles are generated every year, yet little is done to recycle this waste. Alternatives such as fiber-to-fiber recycling, where a significant part of the value of the waste textiles is recovered, are attractive possibilities. In this study, we have investigated the viability of using hydrated zinc chloride (ZnCl2·4H2O) as a solvent and swelling agent to convert cotton waste textiles (the most abundant cellulose-based waste textile) into a dissolving pulp that can be used as raw material for the production and spinning of viscose fibers. The solvent produced an accessible dissolving pulp and exhibited excellent recyclability, maintaining good dissolving power even after repeated recycling. The dissolving pulp was subsequently used to produce viscose dope, a spinning solution which was spun and cut into viscose staple fibers. The viscose dope exhibited good properties (moderate filter clogging value and gamma number), and the resulting staple fibers were strong and of good quality (high linear density, elongation, and tenacity). These results illustrate the potential of using hydrated zinc chloride for the production of viscose grade dissolving pulp from cotton waste textiles. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2024
Keywords
Cellulose; Cotton; Dissolution; Hydration; Recycling; Spinning (fibers); Textile fibers; Textiles; Zinc chloride; Cotton wastes; Dissolving pulp; Fiber recycling; Large amounts; Post-consumer; Spinning; Staple fiber; Textile recycling; Viscose; Waste textiles; Chlorine compounds
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68816 (URN)10.1007/s10570-023-05646-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180523175 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 51217–1
Note

Open access funding provided by Lund University. This work was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project number 51217–1) and ShareTex AB. ShareTex AB financed the zinc chloride used in this work. Furthermore, ShareTex AB also funded the treatment of cotton textile waste with zinc chloride as well as the experiments on recycling of zinc chloride. The rest was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency.

Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-06-11Bibliographically approved
Gidlöf, Z., Lomstein Pedersen, B., Nilsson, L., Teleman, A., Wahlgren, M. & Millqvist-Fureby, A. (2023). Utilising phase diagram to understand barley starch microsphere preparation in an aqueous two-phase system. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 658, Article ID 130652.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilising phase diagram to understand barley starch microsphere preparation in an aqueous two-phase system
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2023 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 658, article id 130652Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, a waxy barley starch-PEG aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) phase diagram was constructed, and starch microsphere preparation was explored at different phase diagram positions. The aim was to investigate starch-PEG ATPS phase behaviour and relate this to starch crystallisation and microsphere formation. The hypothesis was that phase diagram position would influence the starch microsphere preparation and the properties of the microspheres. The microsphere formation process was investigated with regard to microsphere development and starch crystallisation kinetics. Microsphere physicochemical properties and their development during different stages of the preparation were studied by examining freshly produced, freeze-dried, and redispersed microspheres. Enzymatic hydrolysis of redispersed microspheres was also investigated. It was possible to produce microspheres from different positions in the phase diagram using 24 h incubation at 25 °C. However, the operational area for the used production conditions was relatively small compared to the biphasic region of the phase diagram. The main findings were that the starch-PEG ATPS phase behaviour can affect the rate of microsphere formation and particle size, but the additional properties of the dried and redispersed microspheres did not differ to a considerable extent. Thus, we have identified a robust production space where production parameters such as time to obtain microspheres can be considerably influenced by the ATPS system phase diagram position.

Keywords
Barley starch, Microspheres, Aqueous two-phase system, ATPS, Phase diagram, Starch crystallisation
National Category
Food Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62514 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfa.2022.130652 (DOI)2-s2.0-85145556521 (Scopus ID)
Note

We acknowledge the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research for founding of Zandra Gidlöf (Grant number FID18-0026). This research was also financed through Competence Centre NextBioForm, funded by Vinnova Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation and The Swedish Research Council under grant number 2018-04730.

Available from: 2023-01-23 Created: 2023-01-23 Last updated: 2023-11-03Bibliographically approved
Völtz, L. R., Geng, S., Teleman, A. & Oksman, K. (2022). Influence of Dispersion and Orientation on Polyamide-6 Cellulose Nanocomposites Manufactured through Liquid-Assisted Extrusion. Nanomaterials, 12(5), Article ID 818.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Dispersion and Orientation on Polyamide-6 Cellulose Nanocomposites Manufactured through Liquid-Assisted Extrusion
2022 (English)In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 818Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the possibility of adding nanocellulose and its dispersion to polyamide 6 (PA6), a polymer with a high melting temperature, is investigated using melt extrusion. The main challenges of the extrusion of these materials are achieving a homogeneous dispersion and avoiding the thermal degradation of nanocellulose. These challenges are overcome by using an aqueous suspension of never-dried nanocellulose, which is pumped into the molten polymer without any chemical modification or drying. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol is tested as a dispersant for nanocellulose. The dispersion, thermal degradation, and mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposites are studied. The results show that the dispersant has a positive impact on the dispersion of nanocellulose and that the liquid-assisted melt compounding does not cause the degradation of nanocellulose. The addition of only 0.5 wt.% nanocellulose increases the stiffness of the neat polyamide 6 from 2 to 2.3 GPa and shifts the tan δ peak toward higher temperatures, indicating an interaction between PA6 and nanocellulose. The addition of the dispersant decreases the strength and modulus but has a significant effect on the elongation and toughness. To further enhance the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites, solid-state drawing is used to create an oriented structure in the polymer and nanocomposites. The orientation greatly improves its mechanical properties, and the oriented nanocomposite with polyethylene glycol as dispersant exhibits the best alignment and properties: with orientation, the strength increases from 52 to 221 MPa, modulus from 1.4 to 2.8 GPa, and toughness 30 to 33 MJ m<sup>-3</sup> in a draw ratio of 2.5. This study shows that nanocellulose can be added to PA6 by liquid-assisted extrusion with good dispersion and without degradation and that the orientation of the structure is a highly-effective method for producing thermoplastic nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63276 (URN)10.3390/nano12050818 (DOI)
Note

The authors wish to thank Stora Enso and Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse for their financial support (Project KAW 2018.0451). The authors are grateful to Kalle Ekman at Stora Enso Oyi, Finland for providing the cellulose material and to Treesearch Research Infrastructure for its financial support for the WAXS analysis at RISE. In addition, the authors would like to thank the Wallenberg Wood Science Center (WWSC). The authors also gratefully acknowledge Enrico Mantovani for his support during the processing of the materials.

Available from: 2023-01-30 Created: 2023-01-30 Last updated: 2023-01-30Bibliographically approved
Ruuth, E., Sanchis-Sebastiá, M., Larsson, P. T., Teleman, A., Jiménez-Quero, A., Delestig, S., . . . Wallberg, O. (2022). Reclaiming the Value of Cotton Waste Textiles: A New Improved Method to Recycle Cotton Waste Textiles via Acid Hydrolysis. Recycling, 7(4), Article ID 57.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reclaiming the Value of Cotton Waste Textiles: A New Improved Method to Recycle Cotton Waste Textiles via Acid Hydrolysis
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2022 (English)In: Recycling, E-ISSN 2313-4321, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fashion industry is becoming one of the largest emitters worldwide due to its high consumption of raw materials, its effluents, and the fact that every garment will eventually contribute to the vast amount of waste being incinerated or accumulating in landfills. Although fiber-to-fiber recycling processes are being developed, the mechanical properties of the textile fibers are typically degraded with each such recycle. Thus, tertiary recycling alternatives where textiles are depolymerized to convert them into valuable products are needed to provide end-of-life alternatives and to achieve circularity in the fashion industry. We have developed a method whereby cotton waste textiles are depolymerized to form a glucose solution, using sulfuric acid as the sole catalyst, with a high yield (>70%). The glucose solution produced in this process has a high concentration (>100 g/L), which reduces the purification cost and makes the process industrially relevant. This method can be applied regardless of the quality of the fibers and could therefore process other cellulosic fibers such as viscose. The glucose produced could subsequently be fermented into butanediol or caprolactam, precursors for the production of synthetic textile fibers, thus retaining the value of the waste textiles within the textile value chain. © 2022 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
acid hydrolysis, cotton, recycling, sulfuric acid, valorization, waste textiles
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60083 (URN)10.3390/recycling7040057 (DOI)2-s2.0-85136738581 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 51217-1; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency [project number 51217-1].

Available from: 2022-09-09 Created: 2022-09-09 Last updated: 2024-01-19Bibliographically approved
Nissilä, T., Wei, J., Geng, S., Teleman, A. & Oksman, K. (2021). Ice-templated cellulose nanofiber filaments as a reinforcement material in epoxy composites. Nanomaterials, 11(2), Article ID 490.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ice-templated cellulose nanofiber filaments as a reinforcement material in epoxy composites
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2021 (English)In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 490Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Finding renewable alternatives to the commonly used reinforcement materials in composites is attracting a significant amount of research interest. Nanocellulose is a promising candidate owing to its wide availability and favorable properties such as high Young’s modulus. This study addressed the major problems inherent to cellulose nanocomposites, namely, controlling the fiber structure and obtaining a sufficient interfacial adhesion between nanocellulose and a non-hydrophilic matrix. Unidirectionally aligned cellulose nanofiber filament mats were obtained via ice-templating, and chemical vapor deposition was used to cover the filament surfaces with an aminosilane before impregnating the mats with a bio-epoxy resin. The process resulted in cellulose nanocomposites with an oriented structure and a strong fiber–matrix interface. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of silane on the filaments. The improved interface, resulting from the surface treatment, was observable in electron microscopy images and was further confirmed by the significant increase in the tan delta peak temperature. The storage modulus of the matrix could be improved up to 2.5-fold with 18 wt% filament content and was significantly higher in the filament direction. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to study the orientation of cellulose nanofibers in the filament mats and the composites, and the corresponding orientation indices were 0.6 and 0.53, respectively, indicating a significant level of alignment. © 2021 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2021
Keywords
Cellulose nanocomposite, Ice-templating, Interface, Mechanical properties, Orientation
National Category
Bio Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52491 (URN)10.3390/nano11020490 (DOI)2-s2.0-85100726039 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: VINNOVA, 2018-04969; Funding details: Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas, 2019-02496; Funding details: Tekes, 1841/31/2014, 20190363; Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR, 2018-07152; Funding text 1: Business Finland (formerly the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, TEKES) is acknowledged for their financial support (grant no. 1841/31/2014). Part of the work was carried out with the support of the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland. We acknowledge Bio4Energy project for financial support, MAX IV Laboratory for time on beamline NanoMAX under Proposal 20190363. Research conducted at MAX IV, a Swedish national user facility, is supported by the Swedish Research Council under contract 2018-07152, the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems under contract 2018-04969, and Formas under contract 2019-02496. Treesearch Research Infrastructure is acknowledged for their financial support of the WAXS analysis at RISE.

Available from: 2021-03-18 Created: 2021-03-18 Last updated: 2021-06-17Bibliographically approved
Singh, S., Patel, M., Geng, S., Teleman, A., Herrera, N., Schwendemann, D., . . . Oksman, K. (2021). Orientation of polylactic acid–chitin nanocomposite films via combined calendering and uniaxial drawing: Effect on structure, mechanical, and thermal properties. Nanomaterials, 11(12), Article ID 3308.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Orientation of polylactic acid–chitin nanocomposite films via combined calendering and uniaxial drawing: Effect on structure, mechanical, and thermal properties
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2021 (English)In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3308Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The orientation of polymer composites is one way to increase the mechanical properties of the material in a desired direction. In this study, the aim was to orient chitin nanocrystal (ChNC)-reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocomposites by combining two techniques: calendering and solid-state drawing. The effect of orientation on thermal properties, crystallinity, degree of orientation, mechanical properties and microstructure was studied. The orientation affected the thermal and structural behavior of the nanocomposites. The degree of crystallinity increased from 8% for the isotropic compression-molded films to 53% for the nanocomposites drawn with the highest draw ratio. The wide-angle X-ray scattering results confirmed an orientation factor of 0.9 for the solid-state drawn nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of the oriented nanocomposite films were significantly improved by the orientation, and the pre-orientation achieved by film calendering showed very positive effects on solid-state drawn nanocomposites: The highest mechanical properties were achieved for pre-oriented nanocomposites. The stiffness increased from 2.3 to 4 GPa, the strength from 37 to 170 MPa, the elongation at break from 3 to 75%, and the work of fracture from 1 to 96 MJ/m3. This study demonstrates that the pre-orientation has positive effect on the orientation of the nanocomposites structure and that it is an extremely efficient means to produce films with high strength and toughness. © 2021 by the authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Chitin nanocrystals, Compression molding, Directional orientation, Extrusion, Mechanical properties, Nanocomposites, PLA, X-ray
National Category
Bioengineering Equipment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57336 (URN)10.3390/nano11123308 (DOI)2-s2.0-85120617228 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Seventh Framework Programme, FP7; Funding details: European Commission, EC; Funding details: Kempestiftelserna; Funding text 1: Funding: This research was funded by Bio4Energy strategic research program, The European Union, Joint European Doctoral Programme in Advanced Material Science and Engineering (DocMASE), Treesearch Research Infrastructure is acknowledged for their financial support of the WAXS analysis.; Funding text 2: Acknowledgments: The authors thank Bio4Energy for financial support. European FP7 project ECLIPSE is acknowledged for the studied nanocomposites. The authors would like to thank Jiayuan Wei for assistance with the XRD measurements. The European Union and the Joint European Doctoral Programme in Advanced Material Science and Engineering (DocMASE) are acknowledged for the scholarship for Shikha Singh. The Kempe Foundation is acknowledged for support of the infrastructure.; Funding text 3: This research was funded by Bio4Energy strategic research program, The European Union, Joint European Doctoral Programme in Advanced Material Science and Engineering (DocMASE), Treesearch Research Infrastructure is acknowledged for their financial support of the WAXS analysis.The authors thank Bio4Energy for financial support. European FP7 project ECLIPSE is acknowledged for the studied nanocomposites. The authors would like to thank Jiayuan Wei for assistance with the XRD measurements. The European Union and the Joint European Doctoral Programme in Advanced Material Science and Engineering (DocMASE) are acknowledged for the scholarship for Shikha Singh. The Kempe Foundation is acknowledged for support of the infrastructure.

Available from: 2021-12-28 Created: 2021-12-28 Last updated: 2021-12-28Bibliographically approved
Nechyporchuk, O., Hanna, U. & Teleman, A. (2021). Silica-rich regenerated cellulose fibers enabled by delayed dissolution of silica nanoparticles in strong alkali using zinc oxide. Carbohydrate Polymers, 264, Article ID 118032.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silica-rich regenerated cellulose fibers enabled by delayed dissolution of silica nanoparticles in strong alkali using zinc oxide
2021 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 264, article id 118032Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) dissolve in alkaline media, which limits their use in certain applications. Here, we report a delayed dissolution of SNPs in strong alkali induced by zinc oxide (ZnO), an additive which also limits gelation of alkaline cellulose solutions. This allows incorporating high solid content of silica (30 wt%) in cellulose solutions with retention of their predominant viscous behavior long enough (ca. 180 min) to enable fiber wet spinning. We show that without addition of ZnO, silica dissolves completely, resulting in strong gelation of cellulose solutions that become unsuitable for wet spinning. With an increase of silica concentration, gelation of the solutions occurs faster. Employing ZnO, silica-rich regenerated cellulose fibers were successfully spun, possessing uniform cross sections and smooth surface structure without defects. These findings are useful in advancing the development of functional man-made cellulose fibers with incorporated silica, e.g., fibers with flame retardant or self-cleaning properties. © 2021 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Cold alkali, Dissolution, Regenerated cellulose, Silica nanoparticles, Wet spinning, Zinc oxide, Gelation, II-VI semiconductors, Natural fibers, Spinning (fibers), Surface structure, Textile fibers, Alkaline cellulose, Alkaline media, Cellulose fiber, Cellulose solutions, High solid content, Viscous behaviors, Wet-spinning, Cellulose, Dissolving
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52959 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118032 (DOI)2-s2.0-85103953605 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Stiftelsen Åforsk, 19-523; Funding text 1: We are grateful to the ?Forsk Foundation for financial support to this study (grant number 19-523).; Funding text 2: We are grateful to the ÅForsk Foundation for financial support to this study (grant number 19-523 ).

Available from: 2021-04-23 Created: 2021-04-23 Last updated: 2023-06-02Bibliographically approved
Pjanic, P., Yang, L., Teleman, A. & Hersch, R. D. (2019). Angular Color Prediction Model for Anisotropic Halftone Prints on a Metallic Substrate. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 63(4), 040407-1-040407-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Angular Color Prediction Model for Anisotropic Halftone Prints on a Metallic Substrate
2019 (English)In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 040407-1-040407-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Under specular reflection, non-isotropic halftones such as line halftones printed on an ink-receiving plastic layer superposed with a metallic layer change their colors upon in-plane rotation of the print. This color change is due to the orientation-dependent optical dot gain of the halftone. A strong dot gain occurs when the incident light is perpendicular to the halftone line structure. A color prediction model is proposed which predicts under specular reflection the color of cyan, magenta and yellow line halftones as a function of the azimuthal rotation angle, the incident angle and the line frequency. The model is calibrated by measuring 17 reflectances at the (25 : 25) measurement geometry, with the incident light parallel to the halftone lines. The model has been tested for several azimuthal rotation and incident viewing angles, each time for 125 different cyan, magenta and yellow ink surface coverages.

Keywords
colour, halftone, printing, metallic substrate, prediction model
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40764 (URN)10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2019.63.4.040407 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075549172 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-19 Created: 2019-11-19 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Yang, L., Thorman, S. & Teleman, A. (2014). Flexographic printability of packaging: challenges and new approaches (ed.). In: : . Paper presented at China academic conference on printing and packaging, 3rd, Beijing, October 24-25, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexographic printability of packaging: challenges and new approaches
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Publisher
p. 42
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-9556 (URN)
Conference
China academic conference on printing and packaging, 3rd, Beijing, October 24-25, 2014
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2016-09-12 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Yang, L., Thorman, S. & Teleman, A. (2014). Study on flexpgraphic printability of packaging. China Printing and Packaging Study, 6(6), 1-3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study on flexpgraphic printability of packaging
2014 (English)In: China Printing and Packaging Study, ISSN 1674-5752, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Keywords
flexography, packaging, topography, substrate, printability, print quality, mottling, paperboard
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38251 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2624-5693

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