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Grøntoft, T., Verney-Carron, A. & Tidblad, J. (2019). Cleaning costs for European sheltered white painted steel and modern glass surfaces due to air pollution since the year 2000. Atmosphere, 10(4), Article ID 167.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cleaning costs for European sheltered white painted steel and modern glass surfaces due to air pollution since the year 2000
2019 (English)In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports estimated maintenance-cleaning costs, cost savings and cleaning interval increases for structural surfaces and windows in Europe obtainable by reducing the air pollution. Methodology and data from the ICP-materials project were used. The average present (2018) cleaning costs for sheltered white painted steel surfaces and modern glass due to air pollution over background, was estimated to be ~2.5 Euro/m 2 ·year. Hypothetical 50% reduction in the air pollution was found to give savings in these cleaning costs of ~1.5 Euro/m 2 ·year. Observed reduction in the air pollution, from 2002-2005 until 2011-2014, have probably increased the cleaning interval for white painted steel with ~100% (from 12 to 24 years), representing reductions in the single intervention cleaning costs from 7 to 4%/year (= % of one cleaning investment, per year during the cleaning interval) and for the modern glass with ~65% (from 0.85 to 1.3 years), representing reductions in the cleaning cost from 124 to 95%/year. The cleaning cost reductions, obtainable by 50% reduction in air pollution, would have been ~3 %/year for white painted steel and ~60%/year for the modern glass, representing ~100 and 50% additional cleaning interval increases. These potential cleaning cost savings are significantly higher than previously reported for the weathering of Portland limestone ornament and zinc monuments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Air pollution, Cleaning costs, Cleaning interval, Dose-response function, Facades, Maintenance costs, Modern glass, Soiling, Cleaning, Cost estimating, Cost reduction, Glass, Lime, Microalloyed steel, Pollution control, Cost saving, Dose-response functions, Glass surfaces, Maintenance cleaning, Maintenance cost, Painted steels, Structural surfaces, Air cleaners
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38535 (URN)10.3390/atmos10040167 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064068423 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-08-01Bibliographically approved
Ahlström, J., Tidblad, J., Tang, L., Sederholm, B. & Leijonmarck, S. (2018). Electrochemical properties of oxide scale on steel exposed in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions with or without chlorides. International Journal of Corrosion, 2018, Article ID 5623504.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical properties of oxide scale on steel exposed in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions with or without chlorides
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Corrosion, ISSN 1687-9325, E-ISSN 1687-9333, Vol. 2018, article id 5623504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The electrochemical properties of various iron oxide scales on steel exposed in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions were investigated. The iron oxide scales were manufactured by different heat treatments and grinding processes and characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical properties of the scales were assessed by measuring the corrosion potential and using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves. It was found that wustite and magnetite are less noble compared to hematite but are more effective as cathodic surfaces. The results show that the electrochemical properties of the mill scale can be an important contributing factor in the corrosion of steel in concrete.

Keywords
Chlorine compounds, Electrochemical corrosion, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Electrochemical properties, Hematite, Hydrated lime, Lime, Magnetite, Scale (deposits), Scanning electron microscopy, Calcium hydroxide solution, Cathodic surfaces, Contributing factor, Corrosion of steel in concretes, Corrosion potentials, Grinding process, Iron oxide scale, Potentiodynamic polarization curves, Steel corrosion
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36784 (URN)10.1155/2018/5623504 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056572728 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Nordänger, S., Tidbeck, B. & Tidblad, J. (2017). Accelerated corrosion testing - A qualification method for field testing?. Corrosion Management, 2017-January(135), 13-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerated corrosion testing - A qualification method for field testing?
2017 (English)In: Corrosion Management, ISSN 1355-5243, Vol. 2017-January, no 135, p. 13-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accelerated corrosion test methods have been used for a long time to predict performance of coating systems in real applications. These methods have also been used for qualifying individual systems, and for benchmarking different systems in particular applications. Different accelerated methods have been developed over the years depending on which branch of the industry, or company in which they are used. Results from accelerated corrosion testing of paint systems, including pretreatments are described and compared to field testing for 18, 30 and 43 months in a marine atmosphere. Most of the paint systems and pretreatments tested are classified as relatively new, and environmentally friendly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Square One Advertising and Design Limited, 2017
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-41139 (URN)2-s2.0-85014805231 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-11 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Tidblad, J., Kreislová, K., Faller, M., de la Fuente, D., Yates, T., Verney-Carron, A., . . . Hans, U. (2017). ICP materials trends in corrosion, soiling and air pollution (1987-2014). Materials, 10(8), Article ID 969.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ICP materials trends in corrosion, soiling and air pollution (1987-2014)
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2017 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 969Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Results from the international cooperative programme on effects on materials including historic and cultural monuments are presented from the period 1987-2014 and include pollution data (SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM10), corrosion data (carbon steel, weathering steel, zinc, copper, aluminium and limestone) and data on the soiling of modern glass for nineteen industrial, urban and rural test sites in Europe. Both one-year and four-year corrosion data are presented. Corrosion and pollution have decreased significantly and a shift in the magnitude is generally observed around 1997: from a sharp decrease to a more modest decrease or to a constant level without any decrease. SO2 levels, carbon steel and copper corrosion have decreased even after 1997, which is more pronounced in urban areas, while corrosion of the other materials shows no decrease after 1997, when looking at one-year values. When looking at four-year values, however, there is a significant decrease after 1997 for zinc, which is not evident when looking at the one-year values. This paper also presents results on corrosion kinetics by comparison of one- and four-year values. For carbon steel and copper, kinetics is relatively independent of sites while other materials, especially zinc, show substantial variation in kinetics for the first four years, which needs to be considered when producing new and possibly improved models for corrosion. © 2017 by the authors.

Keywords
Aluminium, Atmospheric corrosion, Carbon steel, Copper, Glass, Limestone, Pollution, Soiling, Weathering steel, Zinc, Aluminum, Copper corrosion, Kinetics, Nitrogen compounds, Urban growth, Weathering, Constant level, Corrosion kinetics, Substantial variations, Test site, Urban and rural, Urban areas, Corrosion
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33177 (URN)10.3390/ma10080969 (DOI)2-s2.0-85027731282 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Christodoulakis, J., Tzanis, C. G., Varotsos, C. A., Ferm, M. & Tidblad, J. (2017). Impacts of air pollution and climate on materials in Athens, Greece. Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, 17(1), 439-448
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of air pollution and climate on materials in Athens, Greece
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2017 (English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 439-448Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For more than 10 years now the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, has contributed to the UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) ICP Materials (International Co-operative Programme on Effects on Materials including Historic and Cultural Monuments) programme for monitoring the corrosion/soiling levels of different kinds of materials due to environmental air-quality parameters. In this paper we present the results obtained from the analysis of observational data that were collected in Athens during the period 2003-2012. According to these results, the corrosion/soiling of the particular exposed materials tends to decrease over the years, except for the case of copper. Based on this long experimental database that is applicable to the multi-pollutant situation in the Athens basin, we present dose-response functions (DRFs) considering that "dose" stands for the air pollutant concentration, "response" for the material mass loss (normally per annum) and "function", the relationship derived by the best statistical fit to the data.

Keywords
atmospheric pollution, climate, environmental quality, pollution effect, Athens [Attica], Attica, Greece
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-31071 (URN)10.5194/acp-17-439-2017 (DOI)2-s2.0-85009178429 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Ahlström, J., Tidblad, J., Sederholm, B. & Wadsö, L. (2016). Influence of chloride and moisture content on steel rebar corrosion in concrete. Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, 67(10), 1049-1058
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of chloride and moisture content on steel rebar corrosion in concrete
2016 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 1049-1058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reinforced mortar samples were exposed in humidity chambers with different relative humidity or exposed in cyclic moisture conditions. The rebars were in an “as received” condition meaning that the preexisting oxide scale were intact. The lowest chloride concentration that initiated corrosion was 1% Cl− by mass of cement, corrosion was then observed for samples exposed at 97% relative humidity. It is suggested that the corrosion rate decreases when samples are exposed to a relative humidity lower than 97%. The results indicate that threshold levels should be evaluated at rather humid conditions (97%) despite the fact that the maximum corrosion rate at higher chloride levels is observed in the interval 91–94%. For samples exposed to cyclic moisture conditions, a lower chloride concentration was needed to initiate corrosion compared to samples exposed in static moisture conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2016
Keywords
chloride, concrete, corrosion, moisture, steel, Chlorine compounds, Concretes, Scale (deposits), Chloride concentrations, Chloride levels, Humid conditions, Humidity chambers, Moisture conditions, Reinforced mortar, Threshold levels, Corrosion rate
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-41191 (URN)10.1002/maco.201508799 (DOI)2-s2.0-84971631278 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-11 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Tidblad, J. (2015). Air Pollution Damage to Metals. In: (Ed.), Urban Pollution and Changes to Materials and Building Surfaces: (pp. 143-164). Paper presented at . IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air Pollution Damage to Metals
2015 (English)In: Urban Pollution and Changes to Materials and Building Surfaces, IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS , 2015, p. 143-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS, 2015
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12912 (URN)10.1142/9781783268863_0006 (DOI)978-1-78326-885-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Tidblad, J., Hicks, K., Kuylenstierna, J., Pradhan, B. B., Dangol, P., Mylvakanam, I., . . . Lungu, C. (2015). Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Kathmandu, Nepal (ed.). Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, 67(2), 170-175
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Kathmandu, Nepal
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2015 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 170-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon steel, zinc and limestone samples were exposed in Kathmandu for one year. Their corrosion was measured at ten locations and related to SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM concentrations and climatic factors. Corrosion rates vary considerably and are correlated mainly with the SO2 concentration. Estimated policy targets for SO2 are most stringent for limestone, in the range 3 to 6μgm-3. The Kathmandu carbon steel and limestone samples matched a general pattern from exposures at more than twenty sites in Asia and Africa. At these Asian/African sites corrosion of copper is generally higher than corrosion of zinc. This is in contrast to experiences from European conditions where corrosion of zinc is higher than corrosion of copper.

Keywords
Atmospheric corrosion, Kathmandu
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12778 (URN)10.1002/maco.201408043 (DOI)2-s2.0-84933567333 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2019-07-02Bibliographically approved
Sjögren, L., Pahverk, H. & Tidblad, J. (2015). Bimetallic corrosion under atmospheric conditions, effect of different types of specimens for field exposure tests. In: European Corrosion Congress, EUROCORR 2015: . Paper presented at European Corrosion Congress, EUROCORR 2015, 6 September 2015 through 10 September 2015. Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials (ASMET)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bimetallic corrosion under atmospheric conditions, effect of different types of specimens for field exposure tests
2015 (English)In: European Corrosion Congress, EUROCORR 2015, Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials (ASMET) , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials (ASMET), 2015
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42194 (URN)2-s2.0-85025633340 (Scopus ID)9781510837379 (ISBN)
Conference
European Corrosion Congress, EUROCORR 2015, 6 September 2015 through 10 September 2015
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Ahlström, J., Tidblad, J., Sandberg, B. & Wadsö, L. (2015). Galvanic corrosion properties of steel in water saturated concrete (ed.). Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, 66(1), 67-75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Galvanic corrosion properties of steel in water saturated concrete
2015 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aluminum-based sacrificial anodes were installed to reinforced concrete to stop ongoing corrosion in cooling water tunnels in a Swedish nuclear power plant. The steel rebars were also unintentionally connected to stainless steel water pumps. Therefore, the consumption rate of the sacrificial anodes was higher than predicted. An experimental and a field study were performed to assess if the steel rebar suffer from galvanic corrosion and if the stainless steel pumps are responsible alone for the high consumption rate. It was found from the experimental study that there is an increased risk of galvanic corrosion for steel rebar when the corrosion potential is raised to -200mV (SCE) for samples with 1% CL- by mass of cement and -500mV (SCE) for samples with 2% Cl- by mass of cement. The experimental results were compared with the corrosion potential measured in the cooling water tunnel where sacri ficial anodes were in use and not mounted at all. The cooling water tunnel without sacrificial anodes had generally more anodic corrosion potentials compared to the tunnel with anodes. The tunnel with anodes had also more anodic potentials closer to the stainless steel pumps than further away which means that the rebar is affected by the stainless steel pumps. However, the measured corrosion potentials in the tunnels were not as anodic as the potentials needed for high galvanic current measured in the experimental study.

Keywords
Galvanic corrosion, Stainless steel, Steel reinforced concrete
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12780 (URN)10.1002/maco.201307141 (DOI)2-s2.0-84920848908 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3930-2551

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