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Kaunisto, E., Wassén, S. & Stading, M. (2024). A thermodynamical finite element model of the fibre formation process during extrusion of high-moisture meat analogues. Journal of Food Engineering, 362, Article ID 111760.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A thermodynamical finite element model of the fibre formation process during extrusion of high-moisture meat analogues
2024 (English)In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 362, article id 111760Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A finite element model of spinodal decomposition in a power-law fluid in the extruder cooling die has been developed to investigate the effects of different parameters on fibre formation and alignment. The model makes use of the Cahn-Hilliard equations with a thermodynamic potential and numerical approximations to simulate local compositions in the separated state. The constitutive model is calibrated towards extrusion-relevant strain rates and temperatures by using a combination of rheometry techniques. The simulations show that the effect of decreased wall cooling has a limited effect on fibre development. Instead, decreasing the die width or increasing the die length can be used somewhat interchangeably to achieve fibre formation at the die exit. Viscosity also seemed to influence fibre formation in the outer viscous regions of the die by yielding comparably finer lamellar structures. The local composition of fibres also varied across the die, which may indicate differences in fibre consistency. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Dies; Extrusion; Fibers; Finite element method; Lamellar structures; Moisture; Spinodal decomposition; Strain rate; Fiber formation; Finite element modelling (FEM); Formation process; High moisture; High moisture extrusion; Local compositions; Meat analog; Moisture extrusion; Simulation; Thermodynamical; Phase separation
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67711 (URN)10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2023.111760 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173210292 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2021-03556
Note

Sweden's Innovation Agency Vinnova is gratefully acknowledged for partial funding of the present work through the “Swedish Plant-based Meat Analogues – Generation 2” project, grant no. 2021-03556.

Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-16Bibliographically approved
Stading, M., Miljkovic, A., Andersson, J. & Matsuo, K. (2023). Bolus rheology of texture adjusted food—Effect of age. Journal of texture studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bolus rheology of texture adjusted food—Effect of age
2023 (English)In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Swallowing disorders, or dysphagia, affect a large part of the population due to factors such as degenerative diseases, medication side effects or simply age-related impairment of physiological oropharyngeal function. The management of dysphagia is mainly handles through texture-modified foods of progressively softer, smoother, moister textures, depending on the severity of the disorder. Rheological and physiological-related properties of boluses were determined for a group of five older persons (average age, 74) for a set of texture-modified foods: bread, cheese and tomato and the combination into a sandwich. The softest class was gel food, after which came a smooth timbale; both were compared to boluses of regular food. The subjects chewed until ready to swallow, at which point the bolus was expectorated and measured regarding saliva content, linear viscoelasticity and shear viscosity. The results were compared to those of a previously studied younger group (average age, 38). The general physiological status of the subjects was determined by hand and tongue strength, diadochokinesis and one-legged standing and showed that all subjects were as healthy and fit as the younger group. Age-related properties such as one-legged standing with closed eyes and salivary flow plus bolus saliva content were lower for the older group, but the average chews-until-swallow was surprisingly also lower. Consequently, bolus modulus and viscosity were higher than for the younger group. Overall, the intended texture modification was reflected in bolus rheological and physiological-related properties. Bolus modulus, viscosity, saliva content and chews-until-swallowed all decreased from regular food to timbale food to gel food. © 2023 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
bolus, dysphagia, rheology, swallowing, texture-modification, Biological organs, Elasticity, Age-related, Average ages, Food effect, One-legged, Property, Swallowing disorders, Texture modification, Textures
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65746 (URN)10.1111/jtxs.12789 (DOI)2-s2.0-85165419672 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Correspondence Address: M. Stading; Bioeconomy and Health, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Frans Perssons väg 6, 402 29, Sweden.

  This work was supported by Sweden's Innovation Agency Vinnova (grant 2019‐02128), Swedish Scientific Board Formas (grant 2016‐00253) and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) (grant JPMJSC1813).

Available from: 2023-08-07 Created: 2023-08-07 Last updated: 2023-08-07Bibliographically approved
Hidaka, R., Masuda, Y., Ogawa, K., Tanaka, T., Kanazawa, M., Suzuki, K., . . . Matsuo, K. (2023). Impact of the Comprehensive Awareness Modification of Mouth, Chewing and Meal (CAMCAM) Program on the Attitude and Behavior Towards Oral Health and Eating Habits as Well as the Condition of Oral Frailty: A Pilot Study. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 27(5), 340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of the Comprehensive Awareness Modification of Mouth, Chewing and Meal (CAMCAM) Program on the Attitude and Behavior Towards Oral Health and Eating Habits as Well as the Condition of Oral Frailty: A Pilot Study
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2023 (English)In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 340-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Preserving sufficient oral function and maintaining adequate nutrition are essential for preventing physical frailty and the following long-term care. We recently developed the 6-month Comprehensive Awareness Modification of Mouth, Chewing And Meal (CAMCAM) program, in which participants gather monthly to learn about oral health and nutrition while eating a textured lunch together. This study examined whether the CAMCAM program could improve attitude and behavior towards oral health, mastication, and diet as well as ameliorate oral frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Design: Single-arm pre-post comparison study. Setting and Participants: A total of 271 community-dwelling adults (72.3 ± 5.7 years of age; 159 women [58.7%]) in 4 Japanese municipalities were recruited, of which 249 participants (92%) were assessed at the final evaluation. Intervention: Participants gathered once a month at community centers to learn about oral health and nutrition while eating a “munchy” textured lunch containing proper nutrition. Measurements: Oral frailty, frailty, and eating behavior were evaluated with the Oral Frailty Index-8 (OFI-8), Kihon checklist (KCL), and CAMCAM checklist, respectively. Participants were divided into Oral frailty (OF) and Robust groups according to OFI-8 scores. The differences in KCL and CAMCAM checklist results between the OF and Robust groups were statistically tested along with changes in scores after the program. Results: KCL and CAMCAM checklist scores were significantly lower in the OF group at the initial assessment. OFI-8 and KCL findings were significantly improved in the OF group after completing the program (all P <0.05). Regarding the CAMCAM checklist, awareness of chewing improved significantly in the Robust group (P=0.009), with a similar tendency in the OF group (P=0.080). Conclusion: The findings of this pilot study suggest that the CAMCAM program may improve both oral and systemic frailty in addition to attitudes towards chewing, oral health, and meals, especially in individuals with oral frailty. The CAMCAM program merits expansion as a community-based frailty prevention program. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag Italia s.r.l., 2023
Keywords
frailty, nutrition, Oral frailty, oral frailty prevention program, textured lunch
National Category
Dentistry Geriatrics Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64856 (URN)10.1007/s12603-023-1913-1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85158159740 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) program SICORP (grant number JPMJSC1813), Japan.

Available from: 2023-05-22 Created: 2023-05-22 Last updated: 2023-06-09Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Kwang Tan, C., Matsuo, K., Suzuki, K. & Stading, M. (2023). Investigating swallowing sounds of viscous fluid of optimized food of dysphagia management. Annals Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, 31, 161
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating swallowing sounds of viscous fluid of optimized food of dysphagia management
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2023 (English)In: Annals Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 31, p. 161-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Problems with swallowing or dysphagia is an increasing problem due to the ageing population. Investigation methods commonly require clinical techniques which are tedious and costly. An alternative analysis is to measure the swallowing time non-invasively through monitoring of swallowing sounds. GOKURI is an AI-powered, smartphone-based, neckband- type device for the assessment of the swallowing function. The present study investigated swallow sounds of food in comparison to those of water swallows. In total 19 healthy subjects were eating a full meal while their swallowing was recorded via the swallowing sensor. The results show that the time it takes for a person to swallow varies greatly. Nevertheless, the length of swallowing solid food differed significantly from water, which were slightly shorter to swallow (0.702s vs. 0.668 s respectively). This correlates well with our previous study where swallowing of water took shorter time compared to thicker Newtonian and a shear-thinning fluids.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-70103 (URN)
Available from: 2024-01-19 Created: 2024-01-19 Last updated: 2024-01-19Bibliographically approved
Wojno, S., Ahlinder, A., Altskär, A., Stading, M., Abitbol, T. & Kádár, R. (2023). Percolation and phase behavior in cellulose nanocrystal suspensions from nonlinear rheological analysis. Carbohydrate Polymers, 308, Article ID 120622.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Percolation and phase behavior in cellulose nanocrystal suspensions from nonlinear rheological analysis
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2023 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 308, article id 120622Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examine the influence of surface charge on the percolation, gel-point and phase behavior of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) suspensions in relation to their nonlinear rheological material response. Desulfation decreases CNC surface charge density which leads to an increase in attractive forces between CNCs. Therefore, by considering sulfated and desulfated CNC suspensions, we are comparing CNC systems that differ in their percolation and gel-point concentrations relative to their phase transition concentrations. The results show that independently of whether the gel-point (linear viscoelasticity, LVE) occurs at the biphasic - liquid crystalline transition (sulfated CNC) or at the isotropic - quasi-biphasic transition (desulfated CNC), the nonlinear behavior appears to mark the existence of a weakly percolated network at lower concentrations. Above this percolation threshold, nonlinear material parameters are sensitive to the phase and gelation behavior as determined in static (phase) and LVE conditions (gel-point). However, the change in material response in nonlinear conditions can occur at higher concentrations than identified through polarized optical microscopy, suggesting that the nonlinear deformations could distort the suspensions microstructure such that for example a liquid crystalline phase (static) suspension could show microstructural dynamics similar to a biphasic system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Cellulose nanocrystal suspensions, Fourier-transform rheology, Percolation, Self-assembly phases, Stress decomposition, Cellulose, Cellulose derivatives, Gelation, Nanocrystals, Nonlinear optics, Solvents, Suspensions (fluids), Cellulose nanocrystal suspension, Gel phasis, Gel point, Linear viscoelasticity, Material response, Rheological analysis, Self-assembly phase, Stress decompositions, Self assembly, Behavior, Dispersions, Phase Transition
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64094 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2023.120622 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147603169 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Abitbol T, RISE, Sweden;  Funding details: BASF; Funding details: Wallenberg Wood Science Center, WWSC; Funding text 1: SW and RK are grateful for the financial support of the Wallenberg Wood Science Centre (WWSC) and of the Chalmers Area of Advance Materials Science. The Chair of Sustainable Packaging within the Institute of Materials at EPFL, co-funded by BASF, Logitech, Nestlé and SIG, is acknowledged by TA. A.Ah, A.A. and M.S. are grateful for the financial support from KP Nanocellulose platform at RISE AB.; Funding text 2: SW and RK are grateful for the financial support of the Wallenberg Wood Science Centre (WWSC) and of the Chalmers Area of Advance Materials Science. The Chair of Sustainable Packaging within the Institute of Materials at EPFL, co-funded by BASF, Logitech, Nestlé and SIG, is acknowledged by TA. A.Ah, A.A. and M.S. are grateful for the financial support from KP Nanocellulose platform at RISE AB.

Available from: 2023-02-28 Created: 2023-02-28 Last updated: 2023-10-06Bibliographically approved
Sepehri, S., Andersson, J., Schaller, V., Grüttner, C., Stading, M. & Johansson, C. (2023). Remote Sensing of the Nano-Rheological Properties of Soft Materials Using Magnetic Nanoparticles and Magnetic AC Susceptometry. Nanomaterials, 13(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Sensing of the Nano-Rheological Properties of Soft Materials Using Magnetic Nanoparticles and Magnetic AC Susceptometry
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2023 (English)In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have developed a nano-rheological characterization tool to extract the frequency- and scale-dependent rheological properties of soft materials during oral processing. Taking advantage of AC susceptometry, the dynamic magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles blended in the matrix material is measured. The magnetic AC susceptibility spectra of the particles are affected by the viscosity and mechanical modulus of the matrix material and provide the rheological properties of the matrix. Commercially available iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles with 80 and 100 nm particle sizes are used as tracers in the frequency range of 1 Hz&ndash;10 kHz. The AC susceptibility is measured using two differentially connected coils, and the effects of the sample temperature and distance with respect to the detection coils are investigated. The developed measurement setup shows the feasibility of remote nano-rheological measurements up to 2 cm from the coil system, which can be used to, e.g., monitor the texture of matrix materials during oral processing.

Keywords
magnetic nanoparticles, AC susceptibility, viscoelastic properties, nano-rheology, soft materials
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62053 (URN)10.3390/nano13010067 (DOI)
Note

This research was funded by the Swedish Research Council Formas, grant number 2016-00253.

Available from: 2022-12-30 Created: 2022-12-30 Last updated: 2024-03-04Bibliographically approved
Stading, M., Kaunisto, E., Wassen, S., Dahl, L. & Pashazadeh, S. (2023). Rheology and fibre formation in extruded meat analogues. Annual transactionsof the Nordic rheology society, 31, 45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rheology and fibre formation in extruded meat analogues
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2023 (English)In: Annual transactionsof the Nordic rheology society, Vol. 31, p. 45-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

lant proteins such as soy, pea and wheat gluten are known to form a fibrous structures resembling chicken meat when extruded at elevated temperature with subsequent active cooling. The current hypothesis on the mechanisms responsible for the fibre formation contribute to understanding but are not sufficient to describe the full picture and cannot be used to predict fibre formation ability of protein melts thus hampering the use of more sustainable protein ... interactions between protein chains or polymer crystallites. The aim of the present study to use rheological data of protein melts combined with simulation to elucidate the fibre formation mechanisms and this paper will show an example.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-70665 (URN)
Available from: 2024-01-23 Created: 2024-01-23 Last updated: 2024-03-03Bibliographically approved
Ahlinder, A., Höglund, E., Öhgren, C., Miljkovic, A. & Stading, M. (2023). Towards attractive texture modified foods with increased fiber content for dysphagia via 3D printing and 3D scanning. Frontiers in Food Science and Technology, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards attractive texture modified foods with increased fiber content for dysphagia via 3D printing and 3D scanning
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Food Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2674-1121, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

As life expectancy increases so do age related problems such as swallowing disorders, dysphagia, which affects 10%–30% of people over 65 years old. For dysphagia patients the texture and rheological properties of the food, and the bolus, is critical to avoid choking and pneumonia. Texture modified foods, timbals, are often served to these patients due to their ease of swallowing. The main concern with these foods is that they do not look visually alike the food they replace, which can decrease the patient’s appetite and lead to reduced food intake and frailty. This study aims to improve both the visual appearance of texturized food as well as the energy density and fiber content of the timbal formulation. 3D scanning and additive manufacturing (3D Printing) were used to produce meals more reminiscent of original food items, increasing their visual appeal. Rheology was used to ensure the original flow profile was maintained as the timbal was reformulated by reducing starch contents and partially replacing with dietary fibers. The amount of starch was reduced from 8.7 wt% in the original formulation to 3.5 wt% and partially replaced with 3 wt% citrus fiber, while maintaining properties suitable for both swallowing and 3D printing. The resulting formulation has improved nutritional properties, while remaining suitable for constructing visually appealing meals, as demonstrated by 3Dprinting a chicken drumstick from a model generated with 3D scanning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66381 (URN)10.3389/frfst.2022.1058641 (DOI)
Note

This study was supported by the Sweden’s Innovation Agency Vinnova.

Available from: 2023-09-05 Created: 2023-09-05 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Stading, M. & Andersson, J. (2022). Edible and sustainable hot-melt adhesive. Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, 30, 49-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Edible and sustainable hot-melt adhesive
2022 (English)In: Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, ISSN 1601-4057, Vol. 30, p. 49-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hot-melt adhesives (HMA) are used for hobby as well as in industrial applications as a fast-setting alternative without solvents. They are used for corrugated boxes and in electronic devices to affix parts and wires, as well as for bookbinding as well as a glue in hygiene products. An edible HMA can be used for e.g. food decorations, for the childcare sector as a safe alternative to other glues as well as in packagings where corrugated boxes and paperboard cartons arc glued. We have developed an edible HMA based on sugars which can be applied by the same application techniques as conventional HMAs. The rheol. properties showed a similar melting behavior as a conventional HMA. A characterization of the mech. properties of the glue showed that the edible HMA was strong but fragile as compared to the more rubbery conventional HMA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic Rheology Society, 2022
Keywords
hot melt adhesive electronic device
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63650 (URN)
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Stading, M., Sepehri, S., Andersson, J. & Johansson, C. (2022). Nano-rheometry for non-invasive monitoring of texture during food oral processing. Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, 30, 53-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nano-rheometry for non-invasive monitoring of texture during food oral processing
2022 (English)In: Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, ISSN 1601-4057, Vol. 30, p. 53-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Food oral processing is the first step in the digestive process which prepares food forswallowing and digestion. The process only lasts a few seconds, yet it determines our complete perception of texture, taste and aroma of the product we are eating. This oral processing is an intricate combination ofvoluntary and involuntary actions, and it involves complex flow geometry, mass transport offluids and gases and signal processing and feedback from the brain. Any attempt of inserting measuring devices in the mouth will fail because the complete oral processing will be influenced. We have developed a remote, non-invasive determination technique using magnetic sensing of magnetic nanoparticles iron oxide particles. A small amount of these particles senses their surrounding texture through their rotation and the nano-viscoelasticity can therefore be picked up without disturbing the oral processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic Rheology Society, 2022
Keywords
nano rheometryfor iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63649 (URN)
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0310-4465

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