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Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Baumgart, S., Fröberg, J. & Punnekkat, S. (2018). Can STPA be used for a System-of-Systems?: Experiences from an Automated Quarry Site. In: 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018, 1 October 2018 through 3 October 2018. , Article ID 8544433.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can STPA be used for a System-of-Systems?: Experiences from an Automated Quarry Site
2018 (English)In: 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018 - Proceedings, 2018, article id 8544433Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Automation is becoming prevalent in more and more industrial domains due to the potential benefits in cost reduction as well as the new approaches/solutions they enable. When machines are automated and utilized in system-of-systems, a thorough analysis of potential critical scenarios is necessary to derive appropriate design solutions that are safe as well. Hazard analysis methods like PHA, FTA or FMEA help to identify and follow up potential risks for the machine operators or bystanders and are well-established in the development process for safety critical machinery. However, safety certified individual machines can no way guarantee safety in the context of system-of-systems since their integration and interactions could bring forth newer hazards. Hence it is paramount to understand the application scenarios of the system-of-systems and to apply a structured method to identify all potential hazards. In this paper, we 1) provide an overview of proposed hazard analysis methods for system-of systems, 2) describe a case from construction equipment domain, and 3) apply the well-known System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA)f to our case. Our experiences during the case study and the analysis of results clearly point out certain inadequacies of STPA in the context of system-of-systems and underlines the need for the development of improved techniques for safety analysis of system-of-systems.

Keywords
Autonomous Machines, Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, Safety, STPA, Systemof-Systems, Accident prevention, Automation, Construction equipment, Cost reduction, Hazards, Machinery, Risk analysis, System of systems, Systems engineering, Application scenario, Appropriate designs, Development process, Hazard analysis, Improved techniques, Potential benefits, Risk assessment
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37340 (URN)10.1109/SysEng.2018.8544433 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059989681 (Scopus ID)9781538644461 (ISBN)
Conference
4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018, 1 October 2018 through 3 October 2018
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Axelsson, J., Fröberg, J. & Eriksson, P. (2018). Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.0. In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018: . Paper presented at 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018 (pp. 576-582).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.0
2018 (English)In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 576-582Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Road construction is a very large business segment, consuming enormous public funding every year and with significant environmental impacts. However, the rate of efficiency improvement during the last few decades has been negligible, whereas other industries, such as manufacturing, have seen very large improvements by applying automation and Leanbased flow optimization across the production system. In this paper, we outline a system-of-systems concept for road construction which applies similar principles as have previously proved successful in other industries. The paper identifies efficiency attributes and wastes in current practices, which lead to a conceptual solution that focuses on improved coordination of working machines. Technical elements from Industry 4.0 are considered as potential building blocks in this concept, identifying similarities and differences between the construction domain and other industries. Finally, challenges are identified, in particular within knowledge representation and information management.

Keywords
Architecture, Industry 40, Lean, Road construction, System-of-systems, Efficiency, Environmental impact, Industry 4.0, Information management, Knowledge representation, Roads and streets, System of systems, Construction efficiency, Current practices, Efficiency improvement, Flow optimization, Large business, Potential building blocks, Production system, Systems engineering
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35165 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2018.8428698 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052331727 (Scopus ID)9781538648766 (ISBN)
Conference
13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 19 June 2018 through 22 June 2018
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Dersten, S., Wallin, P., Fröberg, J. & Axelsson, J. (2016). Analysis of the information needs of an autonomous hauler in a quarry site. In: 2016 11th System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE): . Paper presented at 11th Systems of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE 2016), June 12-16, 2016, Kongsberg, Norway. , Article ID 7542936.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the information needs of an autonomous hauler in a quarry site
2016 (English)In: 2016 11th System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE), 2016, article id 7542936Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

Keywords
automotive systems, autonomous vehicles, construction equipment, system-of-systems
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-28267 (URN)10.1109/SYSOSE.2016.7542936 (DOI)
Conference
11th Systems of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE 2016), June 12-16, 2016, Kongsberg, Norway
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Dersten, S., Axelsson, J. & Fröberg, J. (2015). An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles (8ed.). In: 2015 Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon) Proceedings: . Paper presented at 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon 2015), April 13-16, 2015, Vancouver, Canada (pp. 582-588). , Article ID 7116814.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles
2015 (English)In: 2015 Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon) Proceedings, 2015, 8, p. 582-588, article id 7116814Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It has been suggested in the literature to organize software in autonomous vehicles as hierarchical layers where each layer makes its own decisions based on its own world model. This paper presents two alternative designs for autonomous construction vehicles based on the layered framework 4D/RCS. As a first step, the typical use cases for these vehicles were defined. Then one use case for a hauler was traversed through the two alternatives to see how they supported safety, flexibility and the use of a product platform. We found that the coordination between bucket control and motion control must be done at a low level in the hierarchy and that the relationship between the vehicle actuators and the built-in autonomous system is important for how the software is organized.

Keywords
actuators, automobiles, construction equipment, materials handling equipment, motion control, remotely operated vehicles, 4D/RCS, automotive system, autonomous construction vehicles, autonomous vehicles, bucket control, decision making, hauler, hierarchical layers, layered system architecture, motion control, product platform, software, vehicle actuators, Actuators, Asphalt, Companies, Computer architecture, Software, Vehicles, automotive systems, autonomous vehicles, system architecture, systems engineering, systems-of-systems
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24440 (URN)10.1109/SYSCON.2015.7116814 (DOI)978-1-4799-5927-3 (ISBN)
Conference
9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon 2015), April 13-16, 2015, Vancouver, Canada
Projects
SARPA
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Fröberg, J., Larsson, S. & Marklund, U. (2015). Analyzing Improvements for a Mine Maintenance System of Connected Equipment and Machines - The Value and Benefits of Data Sharing (16ed.). In: 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE): . Paper presented at 1st IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE 2015), September 28-30, 2015, Rome, Italy (pp. 237-241). , Article ID 7302763.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing Improvements for a Mine Maintenance System of Connected Equipment and Machines - The Value and Benefits of Data Sharing
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE), 2015, 16, p. 237-241, article id 7302763Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A modern mine involves increasingly smart and connected products that are integrated in a mine automation system. Integration enable many possible applications that could substantially aid in achieving the goals of increased safety and productivity of the mine operation including the machine maintenance process. What data will be shared by the involved organizations and products, heavily affects how successful improvements of operation can be accommodated. We have devised a method to map out and evaluate envisioned new collaborative functions for a complex System-of-systems such as the mine maintenance operation. The proposed method map user stories for the involved stakeholders and estimate the value of fulfillment based on different candidates of data sharing architectures. The method is explained and exemplified by a realistic example based the real case. There seems to be a need for a method such as the presented one just to map out what new applications are really feasible. By estimating value in terms of stakeholder benefits and identifying possible showstoppers in terms of protected data, the method seems to help reveal what improvements in the mine operation is in fact possible. Deciding on a data-sharing architecture for a collaborative mine seems to provide useful design prerequisites to a developing organization improving their smart connected products.

Keywords
Organizations, Maintenance engineering, Collaboration, Stakeholders, Automation, Production
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24481 (URN)10.1109/SysEng.2015.7302763 (DOI)978-1-4799-1920-8 (ISBN)
Conference
1st IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE 2015), September 28-30, 2015, Rome, Italy
Projects
Wroomm
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Fröberg, J., Larsson, S., Dersten, S. & Nordlander, P.-Å. (2014). Defining a method for identifying architectural candidates as part of engineering a system architecture (14ed.). In: : . Paper presented at Systems Conference (SysCon), 2014 8th Annual IEEE (pp. 266-271).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defining a method for identifying architectural candidates as part of engineering a system architecture
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Engineering system architectures for complex systems involves the tasks of analyzing architectural drivers, identifying architectural concerns, identifying valid architecture candidates, and evaluation of alternatives. One problem to overcome when architecting a system is the identification of valid of architectural candidates. We have developed a step-wise method for performing system architecture analysis and tested it on a sub-system in a project developing a drive system for heavy automotive applications. In this paper we present the complete method of nine steps for engineering an architecture and we elaborate in detail on the procedure to identify architectural candidates based on previously identified architectural drivers. We present a diagram depicting the proposed information model, its concepts and their relationships. In addition, the expectations on such a method as expressed by practitioners have been elicited, and we elaborate on the validity by examining how well the method indicate fulfillment. Our conclusion is that the proposed method does not fail to deliver on any of the needs and this gives an indication of usefulness. When identifying architectural candidates it is important to use proper criteria in the process. Our conclusion is that the practitioners should focus on candidates that affect the system at hand (within system boundaries), and on the candidates that address the architecturally significant system use. This is reflected in our method where we prescribe evaluation of the design candidates by validating that they solve only the right problem and by ensuring that they address the system at hand.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24390 (URN)10.1109/SysCon.2014.6819268 (DOI)2-s2.0-84902489588 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Systems Conference (SysCon), 2014 8th Annual IEEE
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Baumgart, S., Fröberg, J. & Punnekkat, S. (2014). Industrial challenges to achieve functional safety compliance in product lines (9ed.). In: : . Paper presented at 40th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2014; Verona; Italy; 27 August 2014 through 29 August 2014 (pp. 356-360).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial challenges to achieve functional safety compliance in product lines
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Developing safety critical products demands a clear safety argumentation for each product in spite of whether it has been derived from a product line or not. The functional safety standards do not explain how to develop safety critical products in product lines, and the product line concept is lacking specific approaches to develop safety critical products. Nonetheless, product lines are well-established concepts even in companies developing safety critical products. In this paper we present the results of an exploratory study interviewing 15 practitioners from 6 different companies. We identify typical challenges and approaches from industry and discuss their suitability. The challenges and approaches brought out by this study help us to identify and enhance applicable methods from the product line engineering domain that can meet the challenges in the safety critical domain as well.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24394 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2014.81 (DOI)2-s2.0-84916607620 (Scopus ID)
Conference
40th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2014; Verona; Italy; 27 August 2014 through 29 August 2014
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Baumgart, S. & Fröberg, J. (2014). Variability management in product lines of safety critical embedded systems (6ed.). In: : . Paper presented at 2014 International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014; Coimbatore; India; 3 July 2014 through 5 July 2014 (pp. 98-103).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variability management in product lines of safety critical embedded systems
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The product line engineering approach is a promising concept to identify and manage reuse in a structured and efficient way and is even applied for the development of safety critical embedded systems. Managing the complexity of variability and addressing functional safety at the same time is challenging and is not yet solved. Variability management is an enabler to both establish traceability and making necessary information visible for safety engineers. We identify a set of requirements for such a method and evaluate existing variability management methods. We apply the most promising method to an industrial case and study its suitability for developing safety critical product family members. This study provides positive feedback on the potential of the model-based method PLUS in supporting the development of functional safety critical embedded systems in product lines. As a result of our analysis we suggest potential improvements for it.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24395 (URN)10.1109/EmbeddedSys.2014.6953098 (DOI)2-s2.0-84915747214 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2014 International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014; Coimbatore; India; 3 July 2014 through 5 July 2014
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Dersten, S., Axelsson, J. & Fröberg, J. (2012). An empirical study of refactoring decisions in embedded software and systems (7ed.). In: : . Paper presented at Conference on Systems Engineering Research (CSER) (pp. 271-276). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An empirical study of refactoring decisions in embedded software and systems
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012 Edition: 7
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24069 (URN)
Conference
Conference on Systems Engineering Research (CSER)
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Wallin, P., Larsson, S., Fröberg, J. & Axelsson, J. (2012). Problems and their mitigation in system and software architecting (6ed.). Information and Software Technology, 54, 686-700
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Problems and their mitigation in system and software architecting
2012 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, Vol. 54, p. 686-700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Today, software and embedded systems act as enablers for developing new functionality in traditional industries such as the automotive, process automation, and manufacturing automation domains. This differs from 25–30 years ago when these systems where based on electronics and electro-mechanical solutions. The architecture of the embedded system and of the software is important to ensure the qualities of these applications. However, the effort of designing and evolving the architecture is in practice often neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality. Objective: We present problems and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems in the domain of automotive and automation products as judged by practitioners. Method: The method consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. As a second step, a survey based on problems extracted from the interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these problems at a wider range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest how to mitigate the problems that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops, and from these a number of success factors were elicited. Results: A total of 21 problems have been identified based on the interview data, and these are related to the technical, organizational, project, and agreement processes. Based on the survey results, the following four problems were selected for a root cause analysis: (1) there is a lack of process for architecture development, (2) there is a lack of method or model to evaluate the business value when choosing the architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are less valued than knowledge and competence of individuals. Conclusion: In conclusion, the following identified success factors are crucial components to be successful in developing software intensive systems: (1) define an architectural strategy, (2) implement a process for architectural work, (3) ensure authority for architects, (4) clarify the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimize on the project portfolio level instead of optimizing each project.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012 Edition: 6
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-24067 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8891-033x

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