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Publications (10 of 51) Show all publications
Hazra, S., Duquennoy, S., Wang, P., Voigt, T., Lu, C. & Cederholm, D. (2019). Handling inherent delays in virtual IoT gateways. In: Proceedings - 15th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2019: . Paper presented at 15th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2019, 29 May 2019 through 31 May 2019 (pp. 58-65). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handling inherent delays in virtual IoT gateways
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 15th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 58-65Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Massive deployment of diverse ultra-low power wireless devices in different application areas has given rise to a plethora of heterogeneous architectures and communication protocols. It is challenging to provide convergent access to these miscellaneous collections of communicating devices. In this paper, we propose VGATE, an edge-based virtualized IoT gateway for bringing these devices together in a single framework using SDRs as technology agnostic radioheads. SDR platforms, however, suffer from large unpredictable delays. We design a GNU Radio-based IEEE 802.15.4 experimental setup using LimeSDR, where the data path is time-stamped at various points of interest to get a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of the delays. Our analysis shows that GNU Radio processing and LimeSDR buffering delays are the major delays. We decrease the LimeSDR buffering delay by decreasing the USB transfer size but show that this comes at the cost of increased processing overhead. We modify the USB transfer packet size to investigate which USB transfer size provides the best balance between buffering delay and processing overhead across two different host computers. Our experiments show that for the best measured configuration the mean and jitter of latency decreases by 37% and 40% respectively for the host computer with higher processing resources. We also show that the throughput is not affected by these modifications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Edge Computing, IEEE 802.15.4, Internet of Things, RAN Virtualization, Software Radio, Distributed computer systems, Gateways (computer networks), IEEE Standards, Lime, Network architecture, Open source software, System buses, Application area, Heterogeneous architectures, Massive deployment, Points of interest, Processing overhead, Processing resources, Ultra low power
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39927 (URN)10.1109/DCOSS.2019.00031 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071950502 (Scopus ID)9781728105703 (ISBN)
Conference
15th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2019, 29 May 2019 through 31 May 2019
Note

 Funding details: 5G-CORAL; Funding text 1: This work has been partially funded by the H2020 collaborative Europe/Taiwan research project 5G-CORAL (grant num. 761586).

Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-10-15 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Kuo, P. H., Mourad, A., Lu, C., Berg, M., Duquennoy, S., Chen, Y. Y., . . . Chien, H. T. (2018). An integrated edge and Fog system for future communication networks. In: 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW): . Paper presented at IEEE WCNC 2018 Barcelona, Spain, 15/Apr/2018 (pp. 338-343).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An integrated edge and Fog system for future communication networks
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2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), 2018, p. 338-343Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Put together, the edge and fog form a large diverse pool of computing and networking resources from different owners that can be leveraged towards low latency applications as well as for alleviating high traffic volume in future networks including 5G and beyond. This paper sets out a framework for the integration of edge and fog computing and networking leveraging on ongoing specifications by ETSI MEC ISG and the OpenFog Consortium. It also presents the technological gaps that need to be addressed before such an integrated solution can be developed. These noticeably include challenges relating to the volatility of resources, heterogeneity of underlying technologies, virtualization of devices, and security issues. The framework presented is a Launchpad for a complete solution under development by the 5G-CORAL consortium.

Keywords
5G mobile communication, distributed processing, next generation networks, telecommunication computing, telecommunication traffic, fog computing, ETSI MEC ISG, 5G-CORAL consortium, future communication networks, computing networking resources, edge system, edge computing, Virtualization, Conferences, Cloud computing, Security, Computer architecture, Hardware, Edge, Fog, MEC, 5G, RAN, IoT
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-35243 (URN)10.1109/WCNCW.2018.8369023 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048896717 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE WCNC 2018 Barcelona, Spain, 15/Apr/2018
Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-15 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Shafagh, H., Burkhalter, L., Duquennoy, S., Hithnawi, A. & Ratnasamy, S. (2018). Droplet: Decentralized Authorization for IoT Data Streams.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Droplet: Decentralized Authorization for IoT Data Streams
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2018 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper presents Droplet, a decentralized data access control service, which operates without intermediate trust entities. Droplet enables data owners to securely and selectively share their data, while guaranteeing data confidentiality against unauthorized parties. Droplet handles time series data, and features a cryptographically-enforced fine-grained and scalable access control for encrypted data streams. In this paper, we present Droplet's design, the reference implementation of Droplet, and experimental results of three case-study apps atop of Droplet: Fitbit activity tracker, Ava health tracker, and ECOviz smart meter dashboard.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34098 (URN)
Available from: 2018-07-09 Created: 2018-07-09 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Boano, C. A., Duquennoy, S., Forster, A., Gnawali, O., Jacob, R., Kim, H.-S., . . . Zimmerling, M. (2018). IoTBench: Towards a Benchmark for Low-power Wireless Networking. In: : . Paper presented at International Workshop on Benchmarking Cyber-Physical Networks and Systems (CPSBENCH) (pp. 36-41).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IoTBench: Towards a Benchmark for Low-power Wireless Networking
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Unlike other fields of computing and communications, low-power wireless networking is plagued by one major issue: the absence of a well-defined, agreed-upon yardstick to compare the performance of systems, namely, a benchmark. We argue that this situation may eventually represent a hampering factor for a technology expected to be key in the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-physical Systems (CPS). This paper describes a recent initiative to remedy this situation, seeking to enlarge the participation from the community.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34233 (URN)10.1109/CPSBench.2018.00013 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052530267 (Scopus ID)9781538667422 (ISBN)
Conference
International Workshop on Benchmarking Cyber-Physical Networks and Systems (CPSBENCH)
Available from: 2018-07-17 Created: 2018-07-17 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, J., Finne, N., Tsiftes, N., Duquennoy, S. & Voigt, T. (2018). Scaling RPL to Dense and Large Networks with Constrained Memory. In: Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks: . Paper presented at EWSN ’18 Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks Madrid, Spain — February 14 - 16, 2018 (pp. 126-134).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scaling RPL to Dense and Large Networks with Constrained Memory
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks, 2018, p. 126-134Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things poses new requirements for reliable, bi-directional communication in low-power and lossy networks, but these requirements are hard to fulfill since most existing protocols have been designed for data collection. In this paper, we propose standard-compliant mechanisms that make RPL meet these requirements while still scaling to large networks of IoT devices under significant resource constraints. Our aim is to scale far beyond what can be stored in RAM on the nodes of the network. The only node that needs to have storage for all the routing entries is the RPL root node. Based on experimentation with largescale commercial deployments, we suggest two mechanisms to make RPL scale under resource constraints: (1) end-to-end route registration with DAO and (2) a policy for managing the neighbor table. By employing these mechanisms, we show that the bi-directional packet reception rate of RPL networks increases significantly.

Keywords
RPL, Scalability, Wireless Networking
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36441 (URN)
Conference
EWSN ’18 Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks Madrid, Spain — February 14 - 16, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Elsts, A., Fafoutis, X., Duquennoy, S., Oikonomou, G., Piechocki, R. & Craddock, I. (2018). Temperature-resilient time synchronization for the internet of things. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 14(5), 2241-2250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature-resilient time synchronization for the internet of things
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 2241-2250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Networks deployed in real-world conditions have to cope with dynamic, unpredictable environmental temperature changes. These changes affect the clock rate on network nodes, and can cause faster clock de-synchronization compared to situations where devices are operating under stable temperature conditions. Wireless network protocols, such as time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) from the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard, are affected by this problem, since they require tight clock synchronization among all nodes for the network to remain operational. This paper proposes a method for autonomously compensating temperature-dependent clock rate changes. After a calibration stage, nodes continuously perform temperature measurements to compensate for clock drifts at runtime. The method is implemented on low-power Internet of Things (IoT) nodes and evaluated through experiments in a temperature chamber, indoor and outdoor environments, as well as with numerical simulations. The results show that applying the method reduces the maximum synchronization error more than ten times. In this way, the method allows reduction in the total energy spent for time synchronization, which is practically relevant concern for low data rate, low energy budget TSCH networks, especially those exposed to environments with changing temperature. 

Keywords
Communication networks, thermal factors, Budget control, Clocks, Internet of things, Network protocols, Numerical methods, Standards, Synchronization, Temperature measurement, Changing temperature, Clock Synchronization, Environmental temperature changes, Outdoor environment, Synchronization error, Temperature conditions, Temperature dependent, Time synchronization, Low power electronics
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33895 (URN)10.1109/TII.2017.2778746 (DOI)2-s2.0-85037609307 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: EP/K031910/1, EPSRC, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council; Funding details: TII-17-1666; Funding details: University of Bristol; Funding details: 761586; Funding details: 5G-CORAL; This work was supported in part by the SPHERE IRC funded by the U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under Grant EP/K031910/1, in part by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant 761586 (5G-CORAL), in part by the distributed environment Ecare@Home funded by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation, and in part by a Grant from CPER Nord-Pas-deCalais/FEDER DATA. Paper no. TII-17-1666. 

Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Peyrard, A., Kosmatov, N., Duquennoy, S., Lille, I. & Raza, S. (2018). Towards Formal Verification of Contiki: Analysis of the AES-CCM* Modules with Frama-C. In: Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks: . Paper presented at EWSN ’18 Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Network Madrid, Spain — February 14 - 16, 2018 (pp. 264-269).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Formal Verification of Contiki: Analysis of the AES-CCM* Modules with Frama-C
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks, 2018, p. 264-269Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The number of IoT (Internet of Things) applications is rapidly increasing and allows embedded devices today to be massively connected to the Internet. This raises software security questions. This paper demonstrates the usage of formal verification to increase the security of Contiki OS, a popular open-source operating system for IoT. We present a case study on deductive verification of encryption-decryption modules of Contiki (namely, AES--CCM*) using Frama-C, a software analysis platform for C code.

Keywords
AES, Formal Verification, Frama-C, Security. Contiki1
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36449 (URN)
Conference
EWSN ’18 Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Network Madrid, Spain — February 14 - 16, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Peyrard, A., Kosmatov, N., Duquennoy, S. & Raza, S. (2018). Towards Formal Verification of Contiki OS: Analysis of the AES-CCM* Modules with Frama-C. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Recent advances in secure management of data and resources in the IoT (RED-IOT), February 14-16, 2018, Madrid, Spain: . Paper presented at Workshop on Recent advances in secure management of data and resources in the IoT (RED-IOT), February 14-16, 2018, Madrid, Spain..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Formal Verification of Contiki OS: Analysis of the AES-CCM* Modules with Frama-C
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Recent advances in secure management of data and resources in the IoT (RED-IOT), February 14-16, 2018, Madrid, Spain, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The number of Internet of Things (IoT) applications israpidly increasing and allows embedded devices today tobe massively connected to the Internet. This raises softwaresecurity questions. This paper demonstrates the usageof formal verification to increase the security of Contiki,a popular open-source operating system for the IoT. Wepresent a case study on deductive verification of encryptiondecryptionmodules of Contiki (namely, AES–CCM*) usingFrama-C, a software analysis platform for C code.

Keywords
Formal Verification, AES, Frama-C, Security. Contiki
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-32980 (URN)
Conference
Workshop on Recent advances in secure management of data and resources in the IoT (RED-IOT), February 14-16, 2018, Madrid, Spain.
Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Duquennoy, S., Elsts, A., Nahas, B. A. & Oikonomo, G. (2018). TSCH and 6TiSCH for contiki: Challenges, design and evaluation. In: Proceedings - 2017 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2017: . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2017, 5 June 2017 through 7 June 2017 (pp. 11-18).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TSCH and 6TiSCH for contiki: Challenges, design and evaluation
2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 2017 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2017, 2018, p. 11-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Synchronized communication has recently emerged as a prime option for low-power critical applications. Solutions such as Glossy or Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) have demonstrated end-to-end reliability upwards of 99.99%. In this context, the IETF Working Group 6TiSCH is currently standardizing the mechanisms to use TSCH in low-power IPv6 scenarios. This paper identifies a number of challenges when it comes to implementing the 6TiSCH stack. It shows how these challenges can be addressed with practical solutions for locking, queuing, scheduling and other aspects. With this implementation as an enabler, we present an experimental validation and comparison with state-of-the-art MAC protocols. We conduct fine-grained energy profiling, showing the impact of link-layer security on packet transmission. We evaluate distributed time synchronization in a 340-node testbed, and demonstrate that tight synchronization (hundreds of microseconds) can be achieved at very low cost (0.3% duty cycle, 0.008% channel utilization). We finally compare TSCH against traditional MAC layers: Low-power listening (LPL) and CSMA, in terms of reliability, latency and energy. We show that with proper scheduling, TSCH achieves by far the highest reliability, and outperforms LPL in both energy and latency.

Keywords
6TiSCH, Contiki, Reliability, TSCH, Locks (fasteners), Medium access control, Mobile telecommunication systems, Scheduling, Synchronization, Titanium compounds, Critical applications, Design and evaluations, End-to-end reliabilities, Experimental validations, Packet transmissions, Distributed computer systems
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34465 (URN)10.1109/DCOSS.2017.29 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050405091 (Scopus ID)9781538639917 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2017, 5 June 2017 through 7 June 2017
Available from: 2018-08-09 Created: 2018-08-09 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
De Guglielmo, D., Al Nahas, B., Duquennoy, S., Voigt, T. & Anastasi, G. (2017). Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH CSMA-CA Algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66(2), 1573-1588, Article ID 7451274.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH CSMA-CA Algorithm
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2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 1573-1588, article id 7451274Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) is one of the medium access control (MAC) behavior modes defined in the IEEE 802.15.4e standard. It combines time-slotted access and channel hopping, thus providing predictable latency, energy efficiency, communication reliability, and high network capacity. TSCH provides both dedicated and shared links. The latter is special slots assigned to more than one transmitter, whose concurrent access is regulated by a carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA) algorithm. In this paper, we develop an analytical model of the TSCH CSMA-CA algorithm to predict the performance experienced by nodes when using shared links. The model allows for deriving a number of metrics, such as delivery probability, packet latency, and energy consumption of nodes. Moreover, it considers the capture effect (CE) that typically occurs in real wireless networks. We validate the model through simulation experiments and measurements in a real testbed. Our results show that the model is very accurate. Furthermore, we found that the CE plays a fundamental role as it can significantly improve the performance experienced by nodes.

Keywords
Capture effect (CE), IEEE 802.15.4e, time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH), wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), Access control, Carrier communication, Carrier sense multiple access, Energy efficiency, Energy utilization, Wireless sensor networks, Capture effect, Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidances, Communication reliabilities, Experimental evaluation, Medium access control(MAC), Slotted channels, Wireless sensor and actuator networks, Medium access control
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-29357 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2016.2553176 (DOI)2-s2.0-85013077357 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7592-1048

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