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Hynynen, J., Willstrand, O., Blomqvist, P. & Andersson, P. (2023). Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests. Fire safety journal, 139, Article ID 103829.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests
2023 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 139, article id 103829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the media. In particular, the toxic gases released upon combustion of electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has been a major concern. In this study, the results of six large-scale vehicle fire tests are presented including three electric vehicles, two internal combustion engine vehicles, and one electric vehicle with the battery pack removed. Additionally, separate battery component tests were performed. In two of the vehicle fire tests a sprinkler system was used to assess the effect of water application on the combustion gases. Furthermore, calculations of the heat release rate, peak heat release rate and total heat release were performed, as well as chemical analysis of gas and soot. Peak heat release rate and total heat release were affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly by the type of powertrain. Regarding the combustion gases, hydrogen fluoride represented the largest difference between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, battery specific metals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt and lithium were found in higher concentrations in the electric vehicle tests than in the internal combustion vehicle tests, in which larger quantities of lead were found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Combustion gas, Electric vehicle, Heat release rate, Large-scale fire test, Lithium-ion battery, Combustion, Enthalpy, Fires, Fluorine compounds, Gases, Internal combustion engines, Fire tests, Heat release, Internal combustion engine vehicles, Large scale fire tests, Large-scales, Peak heat release rates, Release rate, Vehicle fires, Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64934 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.103829 (DOI)2-s2.0-85160430610 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Hynynen, J.; Research Institutes of Sweden RISE, Brinellgatan 4, Sweden; email: jonna.hynynen@ri.se; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 48193-1, 48193-2; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency [grant no. 48193-1, 48193-2].

Available from: 2023-06-12 Created: 2023-06-12 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved
Kumlin, H., Lönnermark, A., Dahlbom, S., Blomqvist, P. & Mallin, T. (2023). Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker
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2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 93
Series
Avfall Sverige ; 2023:15
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67496 (URN)
Available from: 2023-10-05 Created: 2023-10-05 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
McNamee, M., Göras, T., Mossberg, A., Wetterqvist, C., Lundh, K., Blomqvist, P. & Blomqvist, S. (2023). Challenges and opportunities for reuse of products and materials with fire safety requirements – A Swedish perspective. Fire safety journal, 140, Article ID 103857.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges and opportunities for reuse of products and materials with fire safety requirements – A Swedish perspective
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2023 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, article id 103857Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The construction sector is of great importance to the Swedish economy, but its impact on the climate is significant and the sector accounts for about 40% of Sweden's total energy consumption. The sector also generates a significant share of the total material flows and waste quantities in the society. Thus, due to the large impact of the construction sector, there are great opportunities to contribute positively by reducing the climate impact through change and modernization. There are many activities focused on reducing construction waste in various ways and the issue of material and product reuse has received increasing attention in recent years. However, very little work has focused on products associated with fire safety requirements. This paper provides an overview of research on the reuse of materials and products with a focus on products with fire safety requirements. In addition, it provides a review of the Swedish building legislation and its impact on the possibility of reusing materials and products with fire safety requirements. Finally, possible paths are explored for introducing more large-scale reuse of such materials and products. © 2023 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Circular economy, Fire safety requirements, Material flow, Reuse, Sustainable fire safety, Climate change, Construction industry, Fires, Construction sectors, Fire safety, Materials and products, Swedishs, Total energy, Energy utilization
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65693 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.103857 (DOI)2-s2.0-85165132487 (Scopus ID)
Note

The work presented in this article has been funded by SBUF Swedish Building Research Fund and Brandforsk Swedish Fire Research Board .

Available from: 2023-08-09 Created: 2023-08-09 Last updated: 2024-04-02Bibliographically approved
Sandinge, A., Fredriksson, H. & Blomqvist, P. (2023). Evaluation of smoke gas toxicity and smoke density of bus interior materials. Fire and Materials, 47(2), 270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of smoke gas toxicity and smoke density of bus interior materials
2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 270-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Materials used for interior parts in buses are today fire classified according to UNECE Regulation 118, evaluating the horizontal and vertical burning rates and the melting behaviour. However, in recent accidents, the smoke has been identified as the critical parameter for deaths. An evaluation has been made of six materials used as interior parts in busses and is presented in this paper. Fire testing was conducted according to UNECE R 118 and smoke production including smoke gas toxicity was further evaluated with the smoke chamber test, EN ISO 5659-2 and EN 17084. All six tested materials fulfilled the requirements of UNECE R 118; however, most materials showed fire properties which are not desirable, such as dark smoke and melting of large burning pieces. The tests with the smoke chamber showed that all materials gave a very high smoke production, in fact a smoke density value of the highest possible for the equipment to measure. This occurred only after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that this high smoke production will, in case of fire in a bus, reduce the visibility, and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. © 2022 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023
Keywords
bus, fire, interior materials, regulation 118, smoke chamber, smoke density, smoke toxicity, Buses, Fires, Melting, Toxicity, Burning rate, Chamber tests, Classifieds, Melting behavior, Smoke production, Smoke
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60067 (URN)10.1002/fam.3095 (DOI)2-s2.0-85135531894 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, MSIP, NRF-2020R1A2C1009041, NRF-2020R1A5A1016518, NRF2021R1A2C1005359; Funding details: National Research Foundation of Korea, NRF; Funding text 1: This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (NRF-2020R1A2C1009041, NRF2021R1A2C1005359, and NRF-2020R1A5A1016518).

Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2024-03-03Bibliographically approved
Sandinge, A., Blomqvist, P. & Fredriksson, H. (2023). Fire safe bus interior materials – flame retardants and the effect on smoke production and smoke gas toxicity. In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: . Paper presented at Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire safe bus interior materials – flame retardants and the effect on smoke production and smoke gas toxicity
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The demands on bus interior products have increased with increasing sustainability, circularity and a reduction of harmful substances, today’s materials must be improved with regards of additives, such as flame retardants. A comprehensive study was made to evaluate the possibility to use phosphorous flame retardants (FRs) instead of the commonly used halogenated FRs compounded with ABS. The study showed that the fire performance could be improved with phosphorous FRs regarding heat release and smoke production. However, it was noted that the smoke production still was high, and that the smoke density was highest possible, i.e., no visibility through the smoke layer. Further testing of today’s bus interior materials showed that the high smoke density was achieved already after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that, in case of a fire, the visibility in the bus will be reduced and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. The bus fire regulation R118 for interior materials basically deals with burning rate and melting through a fine mesh. Critical fire parameters such as smoke production and smoke toxicity is not dealt with. The R118 regulation need to be improved with these critical parameters in order to have fire safe materials inside the bus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2023
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71490 (URN)
Conference
Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023
Note

The study was supported by the Swedish Centre for Chemical Substitution as well as Sweden’s strategicvehicle research and innovation partnership programme (FFI), via grant agreement 2019-03121.

Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-03-03Bibliographically approved
Haubold, T., Wolter, N., Sandinge, A., Blomqvist, P., Mayer, B. & Koschek, K. (2023). How Phosphorous Flame Retardant Additives Affect Benzoxazine-Based Monomer and Polymer Properties. Macromolecular materials and engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Phosphorous Flame Retardant Additives Affect Benzoxazine-Based Monomer and Polymer Properties
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2023 (English)In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The phosphorous-based flame retardant additives poly(m-phenylene methylphosphonate) (PMP) and resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP) are reacted with bisphenol F and aniline–based benzoxazine (BF-a). DSC, rheological analysis, FT-IR, and soxhlet extraction reveal the covalent incorporation of both FR additives—initiating phenols in PMP structure as well as free phenols generated via transesterification reaction in the case of RDP. In contrast to PMP, RDP elongates the processing window but decreases the thermo–mechanical properties. Both additives increase the resistance in reactions against small flames with solely a phosphorous loading of 0.3 wt%, resulting in a V-0 rating and an improvement in the OI value by up to 2% for RDP and 4% for PMP. Both FRs reduce the heat release rate but increase the smoke production and the smoke toxicity in the case of RDP. © 2023 The Authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
benzoxazine polymerization, fire retardants, flammability, mechanical properties, phosphorous, Additives, Aniline, Esters, Flame retardants, Phosphorus, Polymerization, Smoke, Benzoxazine, Bisphenol F, Flame-retardant additives, Methylphosphonates, Polymer properties, Rheological analysis, Soxhlet extraction, Transesterification reaction, Phenols
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65738 (URN)10.1002/mame.202300132 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163380918 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Mat4Rail with the grant agreement number 777595), and of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (GreenLight, 03SX515E)

Available from: 2023-08-08 Created: 2023-08-08 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Hynynen, J., Willstrand, O., Blomqvist, P. & Quant, M. (2023). Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sales of electric vehicles doubled in 2021 compared to the previous year and nearly 10% of the global new-car sales were electric in 2021. In the recent IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. For example, the use of rare metals and their sourcing are concerns from an environmental perspective, the capacity of the electricity network and the limited number of charging stations has been raised as an implementation barrier, and the new fire and explosion risks of batteries have caused concerns amongst users, property owners and rescue services alike society.Fires starting in the traction batteries (lithium-ion battery) are rare but if the battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery packs are generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This generally results in use of large amounts of water/fire extinguishing agent, which could carry pollutants into the environment.In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicle fires as well as from one battery pack fire has been investigated. Large-scale fire tests were performed with both conventional and electric vehicles. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås, which also allowed analysis of combustion gases for both inorganic and organic pollutants in the gas and liquid phase.It was found that nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese and hydrogen fluoride appeared in higher concentrations in the effluents from the battery electric vehicle and lithium-ion battery compared to from the internal combustion engine vehicle. However, lead was found in higher concentrations in the effluents from the internal combustion engine vehicle, both in the combustion gases as well as in the extinguishing water. Ecotoxicity analysis showed that extinguishing water from all vehicle and battery fires analysed in this work were toxic against the tested aquatic species.

Publisher
p. 53
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:22
Keywords
electric vehicle, battery, fire test, extinguishing water, ecotoxicity
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64249 (URN)978-91-89757-65-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 48193-2
Note

Funding: Energimyndigheten 48193-2

Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Pushp, M., Arun Chaudhari, O., Vikegard, P., Blomqvist, P., Lönnermark, A., Ghafar, A. N. & Hedenqvist, M. (2023). Specific heat and excess heat capacity of grout with phase change materials using heat conduction microcalorimetry. Construction and Building Materials, 401, 132915-132915
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Specific heat and excess heat capacity of grout with phase change materials using heat conduction microcalorimetry
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2023 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 401, p. 132915-132915Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microencapsulated phase-change-materials (PCMs) incorporated in cementitious grout can be used as a source of energy in an underground thermal energy storage system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique to measure the latent heat or specific heat of PCM-embedded cementitious materials. However, using milligram sample sizes (as required by DSC) of a cementitious material fails to represent the actual scale of cementitious components. This is the reason why, in the present paper, non-isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (MC) was evaluated as a tool for determining the thermal properties of PCM-embedded grout as well as pure PCM (three PCMs were used). An MC experimental protocol (using both single and 5–6 temperature cycles) was developed and used to measure latent heat and melting and crystallization temperatures, which were in good agreement with those reported for pure PCMs by the producers. In addition, the specific heats of the PCM-containing grout also agreed with measurements using the hot disk technique. Overall, the results show that the MC technique can be used as a potential standard method in determining thermal processes in complex systems, such as in PCM-embedded cementitious systems, where a large sample size is needed to represent the material.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66941 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.132915 (DOI)
Note

This article is part of a project that has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 727583.

Available from: 2023-09-21 Created: 2023-09-21 Last updated: 2023-09-21Bibliographically approved
Sandinge, A., Blomqvist, P. & Rahm, M. (2022). A modified specimen holder for cone calorimeter testing of composite materials to reduce influence from specimen edges. Fire and Materials, 46(1), 80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A modified specimen holder for cone calorimeter testing of composite materials to reduce influence from specimen edges
2022 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 80-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ISO 5660-1 specifies the cone calorimeter method for characterizing the ignition and surface burning behavior of materials. The specimen is irradiated through a square opening in the frame of the specimen holder. The frame is intended to protect the edges of the specimen from irradiation but covers the edges with only a few mm. In tests with products such as composite laminates and sandwich wall panels, the production of pyrolysis gases from the edges and, in many cases, burning have been observed. Early contribution from the edges in the test is not representative for surface burning. A modified specimen holder was developed with a larger specimen size to allow better protection of the edges. The opening for exposure to irradiance of the retainer frame is circular and of the same area as that of the original frame. The distance between the exposed surface and the specimen edges is larger in order to prevent early exposure of edges. Tests using the standard specimen holder resulted in pyrolysis and burning from edges that took place outside of the specimen holder. Comparative tests using the modified specimen holder showed that it prevented the exposure and pyrolysis from edges for an extended time. However, the influence on ignition time and peak heat release due to the increased size of the modified specimen holder has not been characterized fully, and test results should not be used for direct comparison with those of the standard holder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2022
Keywords
composite laminates, cone calorimeter, edge burning, heat release rate, specimen holder, Calorimeters, Laminated composites, Pyrolysis, Burning behavior, Comparative tests, Composite laminate, Exposed surfaces, Sandwich wall panels, Square openings, Standard specimens, Testing
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52907 (URN)10.1002/fam.2949 (DOI)2-s2.0-85101490331 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Seventh Framework Programme, FP7, 246037; Funding details: Seventh Framework Programme, FP7; Funding details: Horizon 2020, 723246; Funding text 1: The research reported here was conducted within the EU project FIRE‐RESIST which received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007‐2013) under grant agreement No. 246037. The research is also a part of the RAMSSES project which has received funding under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the grant agreement No 723246.

Available from: 2021-04-08 Created: 2021-04-08 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Sandinge, A., Blomqvist, P., Sørensen, L. & Dederichs, A. (2022). The Effect of Accelerated Ageing on Reaction-to-Fire Properties–Composite Materials. Fire technology, 58(3), 1305-1332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Accelerated Ageing on Reaction-to-Fire Properties–Composite Materials
2022 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 1305-1332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As material age, the durability, strength, and other mechanical properties are impacted. The lifespan of a material generally decreases when exposed to weathering conditions such as wind, temperature, humidity, and light. It is important to have knowledge of how materials age and how the material properties are affected. Regarding materials´ fire behaviour and the effect of ageing on these properties, the knowledge is limited. The research questions of the current work are: Are the fire properties of composite materials affected by ageing? And if so, how is it affected? The study is on material at Technology Readiness Level 9 (TRL). In this study, three composite fibre laminates developed for marine applications were exposed to accelerated ageing. Two different ageing conditions were selected, thermal ageing with an increased temperature of 90°C and moisture ageing in a moderately increased temperature of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Samples were collected after one, two and four weeks of ageing. The reaction-to-fire properties after ageing was evaluated using the ISO 5660–1 cone calorimeter and the EN ISO 5659–2 smoke chamber with FTIR gas analysis. The test results showed that the fire behaviour was affected. Two of the composite laminates, both phenolic/basalt composites, showed a deteriorated fire behaviour from the thermal ageing and the third composite laminate, a PFA/glass fibre composite, showed an improved fire behaviour both for thermal and moisture ageing. The smoke toxicity was affected by the accelerated ageing, especially for the PFA/glass fibre composite that showed a higher production of CO and HCN, both for the thermal aged and the moisture aged samples. © 2021, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Accelerated ageing, Composite laminates, Cone calorimeter, Moisture exposure, Reaction-to-fire, Smoke density, Thermal exposure, Toxicity, Durability, Fires, Laminated composites, Marine applications, Smoke, %moisture, Composite laminate, Fire behaviour, Fire properties, Reaction to fire, Moisture
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57366 (URN)10.1007/s10694-021-01197-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85119970365 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020, 723246; Funding text 1: The research presented is a part of the RAMSSES project which has received funding under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the grant agreement No 723246.

Available from: 2021-12-17 Created: 2021-12-17 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
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