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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Stenlund, P., Enstedt, L., Gilljam, K., Standoft, S., Ahlinder, A., Lundin Johnson, M., . . . Berglin, M. (2023). Development of an All-Marine 3D Printed Bioactive Hydrogel Dressing for Treatment of Hard-to-Heal Wounds. Polymers, 15(12), Article ID 2627.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an All-Marine 3D Printed Bioactive Hydrogel Dressing for Treatment of Hard-to-Heal Wounds
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2023 (English)In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 12, article id 2627Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current standard wound care involves dressings that provide moisture and protection; however, dressings providing active healing are still scarce and expensive. We aimed to develop an ecologically sustainable 3D printed bioactive hydrogel-based topical wound dressing targeting healing of hard-to-heal wounds, such as chronic or burn wounds, which are low on exudate. To this end, we developed a formulation composed of renewable marine components; purified extract from unfertilized salmon roe (heat-treated X, HTX), alginate from brown seaweed, and nanocellulose from tunicates. HTX is believed to facilitate the wound healing process. The components were successfully formulated into a 3D printable ink that was used to create a hydrogel lattice structure. The 3D printed hydrogel showed a HTX release profile enhancing pro-collagen I alpha 1 production in cell culture with potential of promoting wound closure rates. The dressing has recently been tested on burn wounds in Göttingen minipigs and shows accelerated wound closure and reduced inflammation. This paper describes the dressings development, mechanical properties, bioactivity, and safety. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
3D printed scaffolds, alginate, biomaterial, hard-to-heal wounds, nanocellulose, salmon roe, wound dressing, 3D printing, Biomechanics, Cell culture, Hydrogels, %moisture, 'current, 3d printed scaffold, Bioactive hydrogels, Hard-to-heal wound, Hydrogels dressings, Nano-cellulose, Wound closure, Wound dressings
National Category
Biomaterials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65731 (URN)10.3390/polym15122627 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163772755 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: P. Stenlund; Department of Methodology, Textile and Medical Technology, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Gothenburg, Arvid Wallgrens backe 20, SE-413 46, Sweden;  This research was funded by ERA-Net Cofund on the Blue Bioeconomy—Unlocking the Potential of Aquatic Bioresources (BlueBio ID: 151), Swedish Research Council for Environment Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (2019-02350), and Norwegian Research Council (311702).

Available from: 2023-08-08 Created: 2023-08-08 Last updated: 2024-04-02Bibliographically approved
Berglin, M., Cavanagh, J. P., Caous, J. S., Thakkar, B. S., Vasquez, J. M., Stensen, W., . . . Svenson, J. (2023). Flexible and Biocompatible Antifouling Polyurethane Surfaces Incorporating Tethered Antimicrobial Peptides through Click Reactions. Macromolecular Bioscience
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible and Biocompatible Antifouling Polyurethane Surfaces Incorporating Tethered Antimicrobial Peptides through Click Reactions
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2023 (English)In: Macromolecular Bioscience, ISSN 1616-5187, E-ISSN 1616-5195Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Efficient, simple antibacterial materials to combat implant-associated infections are much in demand. Herein, the development of polyurethanes, both cross-linked thermoset and flexible and versatile thermoplastic, suitable for “click on demand” attachment of antibacterial compounds enabled via incorporation of an alkyne-containing diol monomer in the polymer backbone, is described. By employing different polyolic polytetrahydrofurans, isocyanates, and chain extenders, a robust and flexible material comparable to commercial thermoplastic polyurethane is prepared. A series of short synthetic antimicrobial peptides are designed, synthesized, and covalently attached in a single coupling step to generate a homogenous coating. The lead material is shown to be biocompatible and does not display any toxicity against either mouse fibroblasts or reconstructed human epidermis according to ISO and OECD guidelines. The repelling performance of the peptide-coated materials is illustrated against colonization and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on coated plastic films and finally, on coated commercial central venous catheters employing LIVE/DEAD staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and bacterial counts. This study presents the successful development of a versatile and scalable polyurethane with the potential for use in the medical field to reduce the impact of bacterial biofilms. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
Bacteria; Biocompatibility; Biofilms; Cell culture; Coated materials; Crosslinking; Peptides; Plastic coatings; Reinforced plastics; Anti-foulings; Antibacterial materials; Antimicrobial peptide; Biocompatible; Click chemistry; Click reaction; Flexible; Implant-associated infection; On demands; Simple++; Polyurethanes
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Biomaterials Science Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68814 (URN)10.1002/mabi.202300425 (DOI)2-s2.0-85178409798 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was financed by Amicoat A/S. The authors are grateful for the analytical assistance from RISE scientists L. Brive, P. Borchardt, K. Johansson, and J. Somertune.

Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Cahill, P., Grant, T., Rennison, D., Champeau, O., Boundy, M., Passfield, E., . . . Svenson, J. (2023). Nature-Inspired Peptide Antifouling Biocide: Coating Compatibility, Field Validation, and Environmental Stability. ACS Applied Bio Materials, 6(6), 2415-2425
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nature-Inspired Peptide Antifouling Biocide: Coating Compatibility, Field Validation, and Environmental Stability
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2023 (English)In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 2415-2425Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study reports the development of a class of eco-friendly antifouling biocides based on a cyclic dipeptide scaffold, 2,5-diketopiperazine (2,5-DKP). The lead compound cyclo(N-Bip-l-Arg-N-Bip-l-Arg) (1) was synthesized in gram amounts and used to assess the compatibility with an ablation/hydration coating, efficacy against biofouling, and biodegradation. Leaching of 1 from the coating into seawater was assessed via a rotating drum method, revealing relatively stable and predictable leaching rates under dynamic shear stress conditions (36.1 ± 19.7 to 25.2 ± 9.1 ng-1 cm-2 day-1) but low or no leaching under static conditions. The coatings were further analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), with 1 seen to localize at the surface of the coating in a surfactant-like fashion. When coatings were deployed in the ocean, detectable reductions in biofouling development were measured for up to 11 weeks. After this time, biofouling overwhelmed the performance of the coating, consistent with leaching kinetics. Biodegradation of 1 in seawater was assessed using theoretical oxygen demand and analytical quantification. Masking effects were observed at higher concentrations of 1 due to antimicrobial properties, but half-lives were calculated ranging from 13.4 to 16.2 days. The results can rationally inform future development toward commercial antifouling products. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2023
Keywords
2, 5-diketopiperazine, antifouling, biocide, eco-friendly, peptide, Biofouling, Disinfectants, Kinetics, Peptides, Biocides, Biomimetics, Coatings, Leaching, Lead compounds, Seawater, Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Shear stress, disinfectant agent, Anti-foulings, Antifouling biocides, Cyclic dipeptide, Diketopiperazines, Environmental stability, Field validation, Rotating drums, Synthesised, chemistry, prevention and control
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65667 (URN)10.1021/acsabm.3c00226 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163305141 (Scopus ID)
Note

This project was funded by the New Zealand Ministry for Business, Innovation, and Employment (Contract: CAWX1805, “Next generation marine antifouling using designer peptides”).

Available from: 2023-08-10 Created: 2023-08-10 Last updated: 2023-08-10Bibliographically approved
Védie, E., Barry-Martinet, R., Senez, V., Berglin, M., Stenlund, P., Brisset, H., . . . Briand, J.-F. (2022). Influence of Sharklet-Inspired Micropatterned Polymers on Spatio-Temporal Variations of Marine Biofouling. Macromolecular Bioscience, 22(11), Article ID 2200304.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Sharklet-Inspired Micropatterned Polymers on Spatio-Temporal Variations of Marine Biofouling
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2022 (English)In: Macromolecular Bioscience, ISSN 1616-5187, E-ISSN 1616-5195, Vol. 22, no 11, article id 2200304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims to show the influence of surface characteristics (microtopography, chemistry, mechanical properties) and seawater parameters on the settlement of marine micro- and macroorganisms. Polymers with nine microtopographies, three distinct mechanical properties, and wetting characteristics are immersed for one month into two contrasting coastal sites (Toulon and Kristineberg Center) and seasons (Winter and Summer). Influence of microtopography and chemistry on wetting is assessed through static contact angle and captive air bubble measurements over 3-weeks immersion in artificial seawater. Microscopic analysis, quantitative flow cytometry, metabarcoding based on the ribulose biphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene amplification, and sequencing are performed to characterize the settled microorganisms. Quantification of macrofoulers is done by evaluating the surface coverage and the type of organism. It is found that for long static in situ immersion, mechanical properties and non-evolutive wettability have no major influence on both abundance and diversity of biofouling assemblages, regardless of the type of organisms. The apparent contradiction with previous results, based on model organisms, may be due to the huge diversity of marine environments, both in terms of taxa and their size. Evolutive wetting properties with wetting switching back and forth over time have shown to strongly reduce the colonization by macrofoulers. © 2022 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022
Keywords
marine biofouling, metabarcoding, microtextured polymers, microtopography, wetting, Biology, Contact angle, Gene expression, Seawater, Coastal sites, Marine microorganism, Micro topography, Micropatterned, Microtextured polymer, Spatio-temporal variation, Surface characteristics, Wetting characteristics, Biofouling, polymer, chemistry, prevention and control, surface property, wettability, Polymers, Surface Properties
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61201 (URN)10.1002/mabi.202200304 (DOI)2-s2.0-85139936889 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Aix-Marseille Université, AMU; Funding text 1: E.V. and R.B-M. contributed equally to this work. Authors thank the IFREMER of La Seyne-sur-mer on the south coast of France and the Kristineberg Center for Marine Research and Innovation on the west coast of Sweden for the access to protected field immersion area. Authors thank the PRECYM (Aix-Marseille Université) for the characterization of the procaryote densities. Authors also thank the IEMN (Lille, France) for the access to a clean room and the formation to photolithography. This work was supported by the Région SUD- Provence-Alpes- Côte d'Azur (E. V., Ph.D. grant).; Funding text 2: E.V. and R.B‐M. contributed equally to this work. Authors thank the IFREMER of La Seyne‐sur‐mer on the south coast of France and the Kristineberg Center for Marine Research and Innovation on the west coast of Sweden for the access to protected field immersion area. Authors thank the PRECYM (Aix‐Marseille Université) for the characterization of the procaryote densities. Authors also thank the IEMN (Lille, France) for the access to a clean room and the formation to photolithography. This work was supported by the Région SUD‐ Provence‐Alpes‐ Côte d'Azur (E. V., Ph.D. grant).

Available from: 2022-12-06 Created: 2022-12-06 Last updated: 2023-06-02Bibliographically approved
Rosendahl, J., Svanström, A., Berglin, M., Petronis, S., Bogestål, Y., Stenlund, P., . . . Håkansson, J. (2021). 3D Printed Nanocellulose Scaffolds as a Cancer Cell Culture Model System. Bioengineering, 8(7), Article ID 97.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Printed Nanocellulose Scaffolds as a Cancer Cell Culture Model System
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2021 (English)In: Bioengineering, E-ISSN 2306-5354, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current conventional cancer drug screening models based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culture have several flaws and there is a large need of more in vivo mimicking preclinical drug screening platforms. The microenvironment is crucial for the cells to adapt relevant in vivo characteristics and here we introduce a new cell culture system based on three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds using cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) pre-treated with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as the structural material component. Breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, were cultured in 3D TEMPO-CNF scaffolds and were shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histochemistry to grow in multiple layers as a heterogenous cell population with different morphologies, contrasting 2D cultured mono-layered cells with a morphologically homogenous cell population. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that 3D TEMPO-CNF scaffolds induced elevation of the stemness marker CD44 and the migration markers VIM and SNAI1 in MCF7 cells relative to 2D control. T47D cells confirmed the increased level of the stemness marker CD44 and migration marker VIM which was further supported by increased capacity of holoclone formation for 3D cultured cells. Therefore, TEMPO-CNF was shown to represent a promising material for 3D cell culture model systems for cancer cell applications such as drug screening.

Keywords
nanocellulose, 3D printing, cancer, 3D cell culture, CNF, cancer stemness
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-55646 (URN)10.3390/bioengineering8070097 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-08-05 Created: 2021-08-05 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Karlsen, E., Stensen, W., Juskewitz, E., Svenson, J., Berglin, M. & Svendsen, J. S. (2021). Anti-colonization effect of au surfaces with self-assembled molecular monolayers functionalized with antimicrobial peptides on s. Epidermidis. Antibiotics, 10(12), Article ID 1516.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-colonization effect of au surfaces with self-assembled molecular monolayers functionalized with antimicrobial peptides on s. Epidermidis
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2021 (English)In: Antibiotics, ISSN 0066-4774, E-ISSN 2079-6382, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1516Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Medical devices with an effective anti-colonization surface are important tools for com-batting healthcare-associated infections. Here, we investigated the anti-colonization efficacy of antimicrobial peptides covalently attached to a gold model surface. The gold surface was modified by a self-assembled polyethylene glycol monolayer with an acetylene terminus. The peptides were covalently connected to the surface through a copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-acetylene coupling (CuAAC). The anti-colonization efficacy of the surfaces varied as a function of the antimicrobial activity of the peptides, and very effective surfaces could be prepared with a 6 log unit reduction in bacterial colonization. © 2021 by the authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Anti-colonization, Antifouling, Antimicrobial peptide, Antimicrobial surface, Certika, Self-assembled monolayer, ToF-SIMS imaging, acetylene, copper, dichloromethane, gold, macrogol, macrogol 200, macrogol 400, phenylalanine, polypeptide antibiotic agent, self assembled monolayer, tryptophan, antibiotic sensitivity, antimicrobial activity, Article, bacterial colonization, colony forming unit, column chromatography, drug synthesis, electrospray mass spectrometry, Escherichia coli, Gram negative bacterium, healthcare associated infection, high performance liquid chromatography, lipophilicity, minimum inhibitory concentration, nonhuman, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Staphylococcus epidermidis, time of flight mass spectrometry
National Category
Biomaterials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57900 (URN)10.3390/antibiotics10121516 (DOI)2-s2.0-85121753149 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Norges Forskningsråd, 283272; Funding text 1: This research was funded by Amicoat AS and the Research Council of Norway, grant number 283272.

Available from: 2022-01-10 Created: 2022-01-10 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Herzberg, M., Berglin, M., Eliahu, S., Bodin, L., Agrenius, K., Zlotkin, A. & Svenson, J. (2021). Efficient prevention of marine biofilm formation employing a surface-grafted repellent marine peptide. ACS Applied Bio Materials, 4(4), 3360-3373
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient prevention of marine biofilm formation employing a surface-grafted repellent marine peptide
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2021 (English)In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 3360-3373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Creation of surfaces resistant to the formation of microbial biofilms via biomimicry has been heralded as a promising strategy to protect a range of different materials ranging from boat hulls to medical devices and surgical instruments. In our current study, we describe the successful transfer of a highly effective natural marine biofilm inhibitor to the 2D surface format. A series of cyclic peptides inspired by the natural equinatoxin II protein produced by Beadlet anemone (Actinia equine) have been evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of a mixed marine microbial consortium on polyamide reverse osmosis membranes. In solution, the peptides are shown to effectively inhibit settlement and biofilm formation in a nontoxic manner down to 1 nM concentrations. In addition, our study also illustrates how the peptides can be applied to disperse already established biofilms. Attachment of a hydrophobic palmitic acid tail generates a peptide suited for strong noncovalent surface interactions and allows the generation of stable noncovalent coatings. These adsorbed peptides remain attached to the surface at significant shear stress and also remain active, effectively preventing the biofilm formation over 24 h. Finally, the covalent attachment of the peptides to an acrylate surface was also evaluated and the prepared coatings display a remarkable ability to prevent surface colonization at surface loadings of 55 ng/cm2 over 48 h. The ability to retain the nontoxic antibiofilm activity, documented in solution, in the covalent 2D-format is unprecedented, and this natural peptide motif displays high potential in several material application areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2021
Keywords
Antifouling, Marine biofilm, Nontoxic, Peptide, Reverse osmosis, Surface grafting, Biofilms, Biomimetics, Boat instruments, Coatings, Osmosis membranes, Palmitic acid, Shear stress, Surgical equipment, Biofilm formation, Covalent attachment, Material application, Microbial biofilm, Microbial consortia, Noncovalent surfaces, Surface colonization, Surgical instrument, Peptides
National Category
Medical Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52974 (URN)10.1021/acsabm.0c01672 (DOI)2-s2.0-85103788257 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-04-21 Created: 2021-04-21 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Svanström, A., Rosendahl, J., Salerno, S., Leiva, M., Gregersson, P., Berglin, M., . . . Landberg, G. (2021). Optimized alginate-based 3D printed scaffolds as a model of patient derived breast cancer microenvironments in drug discovery. Biomedical Materials, 16(4), Article ID 045046.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimized alginate-based 3D printed scaffolds as a model of patient derived breast cancer microenvironments in drug discovery
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2021 (English)In: Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1748-6041, E-ISSN 1748-605X, Vol. 16, no 4, article id 045046Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The cancer microenvironment influences tumor progression and metastasis and is pivotal to consider when designing in vivo-like cancer models. Current preclinical testing platforms for cancer drug development are mainly limited to 2D cell culture systems that poorly mimic physiological environments and traditional, low throughput animal models. The aim of this work was to produce a tunable testing platform based on 3D printed scaffolds (3DPS) with a simple geometry that, by extracellular components and response of breast cancer reporter cells, mimics patient-derived scaffolds (PDS) of breast cancer. Here, the biocompatible polysaccharide alginate was used as base material to generate scaffolds consisting of a 3D grid containing periostin and hydroxyapatite. Breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) produced similar phenotypes and gene expression levels of cancer stem cell, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, differentiation and proliferation markers when cultured on 3DPS and PDS, contrasting conventional 2D cultures. Importantly, cells cultured on 3DPS and PDS showed scaffold-specific responses to cytotoxic drugs (doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil) that were different from 2D cultured cells. In conclusion, the data presented support the use of a tunable alginate-based 3DPS as a tumor model in breast cancer drug discovery. © 2021 The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Alginate, Animal cell culture, Biocompatibility, Diseases, Drug products, Gene expression, Hydroxyapatite, Physiological models, Scaffolds (biology), Stem cells, Tumors, Biocompatible polysaccharides, Breast cancer cells, Differentiation and proliferations, Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, Gene expression levels, Physiological environment, Pre-clinical testing, Tumor progressions, 3D printers
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-55478 (URN)10.1088/1748-605X/ac0451 (DOI)2-s2.0-85109424226 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-06 Created: 2021-08-06 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, J. F., Ytreberg, E., Holmqvist, A., Dahlström, M., Dahl, P., Berglin, M., . . . Dahlström, M. (2018). Copper release rate needed to inhibit fouling on the west coast of Sweden and control of copper release using zinc oxide. Biofouling (Print), 34(4), 453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Copper release rate needed to inhibit fouling on the west coast of Sweden and control of copper release using zinc oxide
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2018 (English)In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 453-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How zinc oxide influences copper release has been tested and the lowest release rate of copper from various combinations of copper and zinc in a paint matrix evaluated, whilst still deterring macrofouling, including barnacles and bryozoans. Copper (I) oxide was added to a generic AF paint in 0, 8.5, 11.7 or 16.3 wt% copper oxide in combination with 0, 10 or 20 wt% zinc oxide and applied on PMMA panels. The results show that zinc influences the release rate of copper. When 10 and 20 wt% zinc was added, the total amount of copper released significantly increased by on average 32 and 47% respectively. All treatments that included copper were successful in deterring macrofouling, including the treatment with the lowest average Cu release rate, ie 4.68 μg cm−2 day−1. 

Keywords
antifouling, Biofouling, copper, release rate, X-ray fluorescence, zinc
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33883 (URN)10.1080/08927014.2018.1463523 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047132640 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Pansch, C., Jonsson, P. R., Berglin, M., Pinori, E. & Wrange, A.-L. (2017). A new flow-through bioassay for testing low-emission antifouling coatings. Biofouling (Print), 33(8), 613-623
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new flow-through bioassay for testing low-emission antifouling coatings
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2017 (English)In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 613-623Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current antifouling (AF) technologies are based on the continuous release of biocides into the water, and consequently discharge into the environment. Major efforts to develop more environmentally friendly coatings require efficient testing in laboratory assays, followed by field studies. Barnacles are important fouling organisms worldwide, increasing hydrodynamic drag on ships and damaging coatings on underwater surfaces, and thus are extensively used as models in AF research, mostly in static, laboratory-based systems. Reliable flow-through test assays for the screening of biocide-containing AF paints, however, are rare. Herein, a flow-through bioassay was developed to screen for diverse low-release biocide paints, and to evaluate their effects on pre- and post-settlement traits in barnacles. The assay distinguishes between the effects from direct surface contact and bulk-water effects, which are crucial when developing low-emission AF coatings. This flow-through bioassay adds a new tool for rapid laboratory-based first-stage screening of candidate compounds and novel AF formulations.

Keywords
abamectin, antifouling assay, Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus, copper, low-release/emission coatings, static vs flow-through
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-30820 (URN)10.1080/08927014.2017.1349897 (DOI)2-s2.0-85027128607 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9377-8924

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