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Pimienta, P., McNamee, R., Robert, F., Boström, L., Huang, S.-S., Mróz, K., . . . Weise, F. (2024). Recommendation of RILEM TC 256-SPF on fire spalling assessment during standardised fire resistance tests: complementary guidance and requirements. Materials and Structures, 57(1), Article ID 3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recommendation of RILEM TC 256-SPF on fire spalling assessment during standardised fire resistance tests: complementary guidance and requirements
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2024 (English)In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 57, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The recommendation is based on the co-authors’ work organized by the RILEM TC 256-SPF “Spalling of concrete due to fire: testing and modelling”. It aims to provide useful information, guidance and best practices in fire spalling assessment to laboratories that perform large-scale tests based on fire resistance test standards. It provides guidance on the spalling observation techniques during testing, as well as post-test spalling quantification/assessment methods. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with the fire resistance test standards, e.g. EN 1363-1 and ISO 834-1. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to RILEM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2024
Keywords
Concrete testing; Concretes; Fire resistance; Well testing; Best practices; Concrete; Fire resistance test; Fire spalling; Information practices; Large scale tests; Provide guidances; Standardized fire resistance test; Test standards; Testing and modeling; Spalling
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68796 (URN)10.1617/s11527-023-02248-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85178668664 (Scopus ID)
Note

All the authors are extremely grateful to Katarzyna Mróz from Cracow University of Technology and Colin Davie from Newcastle University for their very important and efficient involvement in the formatting and review of the document.

Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-01-09Bibliographically approved
Gernay, T., Zehfuß, J., Brunkhorst, S., Robert, F., Bamonte, P., McNamee, R., . . . Franssen, J.-M. (2023). Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Timber columns. Fire and Materials, 47(4), 445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Timber columns
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2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 445-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes fire tests on loaded glued laminated timber columns in which the structural response was measured during the heating and cooling phases. Identical columns with 280 × 280 mm2 cross-section and 3.7 m length were tested under various heating durations in a standard furnace to investigate integrity to full burnout. Two of the columns were subjected to ISO 834 heating until failure and their measured fire resistance was 55 and 58 min, respectively. Two columns were subjected to 15 min of ISO 834 heating followed by controlled cooling; these columns failed during the cooling phase, respectively after 98 and 153 min. Flame self-extinction occurred after approximately 40 min while smoldering continued locally. Two columns tested under 10 min of ISO 834 heating both survived the defined heating–cooling exposure. Thermocouples inside the columns show sustained temperature increases for hours after the end of the heating phase. These full-scale furnace experiments show that timber columns may fail during the cooling phase after exposure to standard heating for about 25% of the standard fire resistance duration. These results, in line with previous numerical predictions, highlight the need for further investigation into fire safety until full burnout for timber structures. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023
Keywords
burnout resistance, cooling phase, fire resistance, glued laminated, structural failure, timber columns, Cooling, Failure (mechanical), Fracture mechanics, Glues, Gluing, Heat resistance, Heating, Laminating, Thermocouples, Timber, Experimental investigations, Fire tests, Glued-laminated timber, Heating phase, Laminated timber columns
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61234 (URN)10.1002/fam.3110 (DOI)2-s2.0-85140262905 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Johns Hopkins University, JHU; Funding details: Technische Universität Braunschweig; Funding details: Politecnico di Milano; Funding text 1: The support from the project partners is gratefully acknowledged: Johns Hopkins University through the startup grant for Dr. Gernay; the Institute of Building Materials, Concrete Construction and Fire Safety of Technische Universität Braunschweig, Division of Fire Safety; CERIB, Fire Testing Centre; Liege University; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden; and Politecnico di Milano.

Available from: 2022-12-02 Created: 2022-12-02 Last updated: 2023-07-03Bibliographically approved
Sjöström, J., Brandon, D., Temple, A., Anderson, J. & McNamee, R. (2023). External fire plumes from mass timber compartment fires—Comparison to test methods for regulatory compliance of façades. Fire and Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>External fire plumes from mass timber compartment fires—Comparison to test methods for regulatory compliance of façades
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2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Post-flashover fires inherently lead to external fire plumes, constituting a hazard for rapid fire spread over façades. As multi-storey mass timber buildings with internal visible timber surfaces become more common, there are concerns that such buildings would produce larger external plumes and hazards (assuming all other parameters equal). The literature reveals only indications of this, and how the actual exposure relates to different test methods for assessment is unknown. Here we utilise a series of full-scale mass timber compartment tests to quantify the exposure to the external façade. An incombustible external façade is instrumented with gauges at positions corresponding to reference data from several different assessment methods. The results show that there is an increase in plume duration, height, and temperatures when increasing the areas of exposed timber, but that this increase is less for normal- to large-opening compartments, than was previously seen in small-opening compartments. Also, normal variations in external wind speed have a larger influence on plume heights than the effect of doubling exposed timber surfaces. Test methods used for regulatory compliance differ significantly not only in exposure but also in pass/fail criteria. The proposed European large exposure method and the BS8414 method exhibit exposures on par with the severe end of what could be expected from mass timber compartments, whereas methods like SP Fire 105 and Lepir II produce significantly less severe plumes. However, the safety level is always a combination of exposure and assessment criteria. This data can help justify assessment criteria from a performance perspective. © 2023 The Authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023
Keywords
BS 8414, exposure, external flaming, Façade, mass timber compartments, standard, testing, Facades, Fire hazards, Regulatory compliance, Thermal plumes, Timber, Wind, Assessment criteria, Compartment fires, External fires, Fire plume, Mass timber compartment, Test method, Timber surfaces, Fires
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63983 (URN)10.1002/fam.3129 (DOI)2-s2.0-85147449069 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Correspondence Address: Sjöström, J, RISE Research institutes of Sweden, Box 875, Sweden; email: johan.sjostrom@ri.se;

Funding details: European Commission, EC; Funding text 1: Brandforsk, The Swedish fire research fund and the European Commission (grant SI2.825082 ‐ Finalisation of the European approach to assess the fire performance of façades) are greatly acknowledged for financial support. Additionally, the work could not have been performed without the funding for the mass timber compartments for which we acknowledge United States Forest Service (USFS) ‐ United States Department of Agriculture and other contributing industry partners for material and advice (American Wood Council, Henkel, KLH, Boise Cascade, Rothoblaas, Softwood Export Council, Atelier Jones, UL).

Available from: 2023-02-16 Created: 2023-02-16 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Gales, J. & McNamee, R. (2023). Fire research for timber structures. Fire and Materials, 47(4), 413-414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire research for timber structures
2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 413-414Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64938 (URN)10.1002/fam.3140 (DOI)2-s2.0-85159263363 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 9 June 2023; Editorial; CODEN: FMATD; Correspondence Address: Gales, J.; York UniversityCanada; email: jgales@yorku.ca

Available from: 2023-06-12 Created: 2023-06-12 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved
Robert, F., Franssen, J.-M., Zehfuss, J., Brunkhorst, S., Bamonte, P., Renard, S., . . . Gernay, T. (2023). NATURAL FIRE TESTS ON GLT COLUMNS INCLUDING THE COOLING DOWN PHASE. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023): . Paper presented at World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023). Oslo, Norway (pp. 1848-1854).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>NATURAL FIRE TESTS ON GLT COLUMNS INCLUDING THE COOLING DOWN PHASE
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2023 (English)In: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, p. 1848-1854Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the data and the results of seven fire tests performed on glue laminated timber columns in a compartment built especially for the tests and in which timber wood cribs created a so-called natural fire. These tests are part of a research programme titled “burnout resistance” to establish a new methodology to better describe performance of structural elements during the whole duration of a fire. Comparisons with similar tests made in a fire resistance furnace allow comparing charring rates observed in standard conditions and in natural fires.

Keywords
Fire, Column, GLT, timber, cooling
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66208 (URN)10.52202/069179-0244 (DOI)
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023). Oslo, Norway
Note

The support from the French Federation of insurers FRANCE ASSUREURS is gratefully acknowledged. 

Available from: 2023-09-20 Created: 2023-09-20 Last updated: 2023-09-20Bibliographically approved
Robert, F., Franssen, J.-M., Zehfuß, J., Brunkhorst, S., Bamonte, P., Renard, S., . . . Gernay, T. (2023). NATURAL FIRE TESTS ON GLT COLUMNS INCLUDING THE COOLING DOWN PHASE. In: : . Paper presented at 13th World Conference on Timber Engineering, WCTE 2023 (pp. 1848-1854). World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>NATURAL FIRE TESTS ON GLT COLUMNS INCLUDING THE COOLING DOWN PHASE
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the data and the results of seven fire tests performed on glue laminated timber columns in a compartment built especially for the tests and in which timber wood cribs created a so-called natural fire. These tests are part of a research programme titled "burnout resistance" to establish a new methodology to better describe performance of structural elements during the whole duration of a fire. Comparisons with similar tests made in a fire resistance furnace allow comparing charring rates observed in standard conditions and in natural fires. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), 2023
Keywords
Fire resistance; Flammability testing; Fire tests; GLT; Glue-laminated timber; Laminated timber columns; Natural fire; Performance; Research programs; Resistance furnaces; Structural elements; Wood cribs; Timber
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67721 (URN)10.52202/069179-0244 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172686149 (Scopus ID)
Conference
13th World Conference on Timber Engineering, WCTE 2023
Note

The support from the French Federation of insurers FRANCE ASSUREURS is gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-16Bibliographically approved
Mohaine, S., Colic, A., Morrisset, D., Mindeguia, J.-C., Franssen, J.-M., Zehfuss, J., . . . Robert, F. (2023). PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE PROTECTION OF CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER DURING STANDARD FURNACE TESTS AND NATURAL FIRES. In: : . Paper presented at WCTE2023 World Congerence on Timber Engineering 2023. Oslo, Norway (pp. 1839-1847).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE PROTECTION OF CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER DURING STANDARD FURNACE TESTS AND NATURAL FIRES
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign designed to compare and understand the performance of passive protection under exposure to standard furnace tests and natural fires. As part of this campaign, five natural fire experiments were performed with partially protected cross-laminated timber (CLT) compartments under a range of ventilation conditions. In all the tests, only one side wall was left completely unprotected, and all other timber surfaces were protected with either two layers of 18 mm standard gypsum boards (GB) or two layers of 25 mm standard GBs. The structural CLT ceilings were subjected to a superimposed dead load of 1.35 kN/m² during the natural fire tests, and the fire load was (on average) 950 MJ/m²; chosen to represent the Eurocode 1991-1-2 characteristic value for dwellings. The performance of the passive protection was mainly evaluated with regards to the time to reach a protected timber surface temperature of 250°C. The testing confirms that the resulting fire protection performance of a given gypsum board layout depends on the ventilation conditions of the fire compartment, with more severe (and closest to ISO testing) outcomes when testing under ventilation-controlled scenarios. This paper provides data that sheds light on the co-dependency of the passive protection design and compartment fire dynamics and underlines the importance of considering the safety objectives of a building when defining the performance criteria of its structural elements.

Keywords
Fire protection, Gypsum Plasterboard, Mass timber, Cross laminated timber, Natural fire
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66207 (URN)10.52202/069179-0243 (DOI)
Conference
WCTE2023 World Congerence on Timber Engineering 2023. Oslo, Norway
Available from: 2023-09-20 Created: 2023-09-20 Last updated: 2023-09-20Bibliographically approved
Pimienta, P., McNamee, R. & Wise, F. (2023). Recommendation of RILEM TC 256-SPF on the method of testing concrete spalling due to fire: material screening test. Materials and Structures, 56(9), Article ID 164.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recommendation of RILEM TC 256-SPF on the method of testing concrete spalling due to fire: material screening test
2023 (English)In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 56, no 9, article id 164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The recommendation is based on the co-authors’ work organized by the RILEM TC 256-SPF “Spalling of concrete due to fire: testing and modelling”. The Committee has defined two types of screening tests for characterization of concrete propensity to fire spalling: Material screening tests and Product screening tests. Definitions of both types of tests are given in the paper. The following recommendations apply to Material screening tests. The material screening tests described in these recommendations are a set of minimum requirements to test concrete spalling propensity (for example, the minimal specimen size). This document covers the aspects of concrete characterization, specimen geometries, storage conditions, test methods and measured parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2023
Keywords
Concrete testing; Concretes; Fires; Concrete; Concrete spalling; Fire spalling; Highest temperature; Material screening; Minimum requirements; Screening tests; Specimen geometry; Specimen sizes; Testing and modeling; Spalling
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67689 (URN)10.1617/s11527-023-02202-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85175097819 (Scopus ID)
Note

All the authors are extremely grateful to Katarzyna Mróz from Cracow University of Technology and Colin Davie from Newcastle University for their very important and efficient involvement in the formatting and review of the document.

Available from: 2023-11-03 Created: 2023-11-03 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Gernay, T., Franssen, J.-M., Robert, F., McNamee, R., Felicetti, R., Bamonte, P., . . . Zehfuß, J. (2022). Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Concrete columns. Fire safety journal, 134, Article ID 103691.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Concrete columns
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2022 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 134, article id 103691Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structures may collapse during the cooling phase of a fire, yet standard furnace tests only measure the response under heating. There lacks experimental test protocols and design methods to assess resistance until burnout. This paper describes a new experimental approach for burnout resistance evaluation, reports experimental data on loaded reinforced concrete columns in furnace tests with cooling down phases, and presents numerical models of the tests. The test results show that columns designed for a standard fire resistance of 60 min exhibited a fire resistance of 83 min in the furnace but failed during the cooling phase when the burners were shut off after 72 min while the load was maintained. Two other specimens survived exposure to heating of 45 and 55 min, respectively, and their residual capacity was measured. Finite element analyses show agreement with the tests, showing applicability of numerical methods for evaluating burnout resistance of concrete columns. These findings demonstrate experimentally that delayed thermal-mechanical effects can jeopardize structural stability in real fires, and provide a framework to measure these effects. Moving beyond fire resistance to quantify the response until burnout will support designs for safety of occupants and firefighters throughout the fire and promote repairability and resilience. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Burnout resistance, Concrete columns, Cooling phase, Fire tests, Numerical model, Structural failure, Concrete construction, Cooling, Failure (mechanical), Fracture mechanics, Furnaces, Numerical methods, Numerical models, Reinforced concrete, Stability, Structural integrity, Concrete column, Experimental investigations, Experimental test, Furnace tests, Test designs, Test protocols, Fire resistance
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61194 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2022.103691 (DOI)2-s2.0-85140094104 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Johns Hopkins University, JHU; Funding details: Technische Universität Braunschweig; Funding details: Politecnico di Milano; Funding text 1: The support from the project partners is gratefully acknowledged: Johns Hopkins University through the startup grant for Dr. Gernay; CERIB, Fire Testing Centre; Liege University ; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden; the Institute of Building Materials, Concrete Construction and Fire Safety of Technische Universität Braunschweig, Division of Fire Safety; and Politecnico di Milano.

Available from: 2022-12-06 Created: 2022-12-06 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
McNamee, R., Anderson, J. & Temple, A. (2022). The development of façade fire testing in Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of façade fire testing in Sweden
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Façade fire testing has been high on the agenda worldwide due to the increased hazard of many occurrences of severe fire spread on façades. There is also international work going on to create a European standard for façade fire testing. In this context it is interesting to clarify what different national test methodologies are based on. This report is a review of the development that led to the Swedish standard for assessing fire performance of façades, SP Fire 105. The review starts from the development in the 1950s with assessing fire exposure from compartment fires and follows further development until 1990s. The fire exposure in the first edition of SP Fire 105 published 1985 was based on two test campaigns including external flames from room fires performed at Lund University during the late 70-ties and early 80-ties. In the early 90-ties the geometry of the air intake in the combustion chamber and the opening under the test specimen was slightly reduced leading to a lower effective thermal exposure of the façade than in the first edition of SP Fire 105. An important observation done already in the 1950s at the Swedish fire laboratory in Stockholm and in the late 1970s at Lund University was that the wind is influencing the test results when doing experiments outside.

Publisher
p. 64
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:146
Keywords
Façade, Fire Testing, Standardization
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64291 (URN)978-91-89757-35-6 (ISBN)
Note

The Authors are grateful for the financial support from The Swedish Federation of Wood and Furniture Industry and RISE which made this work possible.

Available from: 2023-04-13 Created: 2023-04-13 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0380-9548

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