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Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Carolina, H. & Warneryd, M. (2023). D2.1 Sociala hinder & drivkrafter i ett inledande skede av två svenska energigemenskaper: Rapport i projektet Systemförändring med lokalt delad energi.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>D2.1 Sociala hinder & drivkrafter i ett inledande skede av två svenska energigemenskaper: Rapport i projektet Systemförändring med lokalt delad energi
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Omställningen mot ett förnybart energisystem har inom EU gjort energigemenskaper högaktuella sedan två direktiv, Förnybarhetsdirektivet och Elmarknadsdirektivet, beskrivit dessa som ett sätt att dela och göra gemensamma investeringar i lokala energiresurser. Denna studie tittar på två svenska piloter av begynnande energigemenskaper, Tamarinden och Hammarby Sjöstad, och har ett särskilt fokus på sociala hinder och drivkrafter för bildandet av dessa, vilket exempelvis inkluderar hur samverkan sker mellan deltagande aktörer. Syftet med studien är såldes att undersöka aktörers syn på att medverka i, eller bidraga till, energigemenskaper i ett inledande skede. Tamarinden är ett nybyggnadsområde i Örebro som inkluderar fem olika byggaktörer och leds av Örebro kommun. Hammarby Sjöstad är ett befintligt bostadsområde i Stockholm som inkluderar bostadsrättsföreningar samt näringsidkare, där initiativet kommer från intresseorganisationen ElectriCITY. I studien har under 2022 byggaktörer, bostadsrättsföreningar och näringsidkare intervjuats, samt respektive energi- och nätbolag i de två områdena. Resultaten visar att det finns flera drivkrafter till att delta i en energigemenskap såsom att erhålla ekonomiska fördelar, minska energianvändning, ökad hållbarhet samt innovationskraft. Olika förutsättningar i piloterna och hos de medverkande aktörerna har dock stor betydelse för möjligheten till aktivt deltagande samt i vilken grad energigemenskapen upplevs möjliggöra olika nyttor. De inkluderar storlek och ekonomisk situation hos aktörerna, fysiska förutsättningar såsom yta för installationer, kunskaper och erfarenheter av energiprojekt, och i vilken utsträckning det finns erfarenheter och vilja till samskapande. Dessa olikheter kan också vara en tillgång just vid delandet av lokala resurser då enskilda aktörers olika förutsättningar kan komplettera varandra. Hinder inkluderar en ökad komplexitet då samverkan krävs mellan flera olika aktörer, vilket är särskilt utmärkande för det initiala skedet vid bildandet som kräver stort engagemang och förtroendeskapande processer. Andra hinder rör osäkra investeringar, framtida marknadsutveckling och hur kostnads- och intäktströmmarna ser ut, samt hur delning kommer te sig i praktiken med liknande brukarprofiler, liksom hur engagemanget upprätthålls på sikt i energigemenskapen. I det initiala skedet är det tydligt att en avgörande faktor har varit de koordinerande och drivande aktörerna i båda piloterna. I Hammarby Sjöstads fall är denna organisation ElectriCITY och viktiga beståndsdelar i detta ledarskap har varit kunskapsförmedling, leverantörsnätverk samt aktiviteter för att främja deltagande och engagemang hos de boende i området. För Tamarinden är det Örebro kommun tillsammans med ÖrebroBostäder som lett processen framåt där framtagande av kunskaper för beslutsunderlag samt en formell samverkansstruktur för de olika byggaktörerna har varit viktiga. De intervjuade energi- och nätbolagen följer utvecklingen av energigemenskaper med intresse och försöker hitta sin roll relaterat till dessa lokala organisationer. Dock lyfts ett antal utmaningar rörande kunskaps- och ansvarsfrågor kring investeringar, drift av det lokala energisystemet samt effekter på det kringliggande elnätet från energigemenskaperna. Slutligen finns det i denna studie en mängd insikter och en bredd i både förutsättningar och typer av aktörer som ingår i de båda piloterna vilket tillsammans med forskningsprojektets övriga resultat och uppföljande studier bereder väg för konkreta medskick till aktörer och organisationer som önskar bilda energigemenskaper i framtiden.

Publisher
p. 57
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68667 (URN)
Note

”Systemförändring med lokalt delad energi – en samhällsekonomiskt lönsam modell” är ett forskningsprojekt finansierat av Energimyndigheten inom programmet Pilot och demo.

Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-21 Last updated: 2023-12-27Bibliographically approved
Klingberg, J., Carolina, H., Renström, S., Gladh, R., Dahlberg, K., Månsson, A. & Marklund, L. (2023). Effektiv minskning av vattenanvändning i hushåll.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effektiv minskning av vattenanvändning i hushåll
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2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Effective decrease of water use in households 

This is the final report of a preparatory project which has aimed to identify and characterize methods which can be used to achieve a reduced usage of water for households in Sweden. This is so that the methods that give the most effect can be implemented. The project has also aimed to produce conditions for an implementation project so that methods can be tested and evaluated in a practical manner. The project’s long term goal is to create a system transfer and to reduce the water usage in Swedish households from 140 to 100 liters per person and per day. Getting individuals to change their behavior and reduce their water use is complex as several factors affect their water use today and the conditions for reducing water use. Several studies have reported differences between households with the highest and lowest consumption of water by a factor of four. The individual differences in water use per person can be equally as large. The variations in water use can be explained by several factors, such as the size of household, type of residence and the efficiency of the appliances. Besides these factors, there are also large variations in water related behaviors such as routines for showering and doing dishes. To identify methods with potential to make water use for households in Sweden more efficient, an oversight of projects, initiatives and previous research have been carried out with focus towards: • Decreased water usage on a national level • Decreased water usage on an international level • Decreased energy and water consumption through behavior change • Changes in behavior for citizens with regards to a sustainable usage of resources This analysis has landed in four methods to affect the households water use, which are: • Policy and legislation • Financial incentives • Communication • Technical solutions There is limited experience regarding the water saving potential that the different methods, and combinations of them, have in Sweden. The study shows that the method which is mainly used in Sweden is different forms of communication, even though communication seemingly has a limited effect. International studies show that water saving measures, such as water effective techniques and requirements for measuring water consumption, lead to a good outcome. For future studies we suggest that communication is combined with other methods and that more innovative methods are tested in situations that are as close to realistic situations as possible. This is important to understand what the effects will be in practice, and what the consequences will be for other important implementation parameters such as for example cost of implementation and environmental sustainability. We also see an obstacle in the lack of data that show the water use in households. In this project we have created conditions to test and evaluate solutions by using a digital water gauge with a high level of collection frequency. The water gauge is installed in a chosen villa area in the municipality of Kungsbacka.

Publisher
p. 102
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:53
Keywords
Household water use, water scarcity, behavior change
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65648 (URN)978-91-89821-07-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-07-03 Created: 2023-07-03 Last updated: 2023-07-03Bibliographically approved
Wendin, K., Hiller, C. & Enger, J. (2023). PERCEPTION OF LIGHT QUALITIES – A DESIGNED STUDY ON LIGHT SOURCES IN COMBINATIONS. In: : . Paper presented at 30th Session of the CIE September 18 – September 20, 2023 (pp. 460-461). , Article ID PO152.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PERCEPTION OF LIGHT QUALITIES – A DESIGNED STUDY ON LIGHT SOURCES IN COMBINATIONS
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-69356 (URN)
Conference
30th Session of the CIE September 18 – September 20, 2023
Available from: 2024-01-10 Created: 2024-01-10 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Enger, J., Wendin, K. & Carolina, H. (2023). PERCEPTUAL METRICS FOR LIGHT QUALITY IN SPATIAL ENVIRONMENTS. In: : . Paper presented at 30th Session of the CIE September 18 – September 20, 2023. (pp. 403-404). , Article ID PO52.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PERCEPTUAL METRICS FOR LIGHT QUALITY IN SPATIAL ENVIRONMENTS
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68669 (URN)
Conference
30th Session of the CIE September 18 – September 20, 2023.
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-21 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Hiller, C., Wendin, K. & Enger, J. (2023). THE PERCEPTION OF LIGHT COLOUR IS RELATIVE – A PILOT STUDY DESCRIBING PERCEIVED LIGHT COLOUR. In: : . Paper presented at Conference at the 30th Session of the CIE September 18 – September 20, 2023 (pp. 433-434). , Article ID PO105.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>THE PERCEPTION OF LIGHT COLOUR IS RELATIVE – A PILOT STUDY DESCRIBING PERCEIVED LIGHT COLOUR
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-69355 (URN)
Conference
Conference at the 30th Session of the CIE September 18 – September 20, 2023
Available from: 2024-01-10 Created: 2024-01-10 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Carolina, H., Boork, M., Enger, J. & Wendin, K. (2023). User-Centric Measures of the Perceived Light Qualities of Lighting Products. Emerging Science Journal, 7(2), 609-628
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User-Centric Measures of the Perceived Light Qualities of Lighting Products
2023 (English)In: Emerging Science Journal, ISSN 2610-9182, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 609-628Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, lighting planning is predominantly determined by the need to meet physically measurable requirements that are often based on current lighting standards. However, meeting the minimum technical requirements of the standards is no guarantee for a visually appealing light environment. Instead, requirements based on perceived light qualities also need to be included to achieve better user comfort. Taking perception-based qualities into consideration when creating a light environment is, for many, not an easy task. In addition, a common terminology for perceived light qualities is currently lacking, both in industry and in research. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to explore how perceived light qualities of white light sources can be described when employing user-centric measures. The focus was on the qualities of light colour and diffuse and distinct light since these qualities have a great impact on the visual impression of light. The perception was assessed by applying analytical sensory analysis to lighting products, a method found to be promising in previous work. The methodology is based on analytical measurement by the human senses, which is particularly valuable when developing a general terminology. Since sensory analysis is still quite new to the topic of lighting, the applicability of using the methodology to assess lighting in a real context was also investigated. The results of the studies showed that the perception of light qualities can be described using further concepts in addition to those currently used. For light colour, the concepts of reddish, bluish, yellowish, and greenish light colours proved suitable for providing a richer description of the quality. The concepts of diffuse and distinct light satisfactorily captured variations in light contrast produced by shadows, reflections, and sparkles. In addition, the studies revealed that analytical sensory analysis was applicable for assessing the perception of lighting in a real-world context. The latter means that knowledge gained in the laboratory can be translated into real environments. The user-centric measures investigated in this paper have contributed to the terminology related to perceived light qualities. These can complement the physical measures in lighting planning to promote light environments that are not only energy efficient and meet technical requirements, but also cater for increased user comfort. © 2023 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ital Publication, 2023
Keywords
Analytical Assessment, Diffuse Light, Distinct Light, Light Colour, Light Qualities, Lighting Assessment, Sensory Analysis, Visual Perception
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64240 (URN)10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-02-022 (DOI)2-s2.0-85149213500 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Correspondence Address: C. Hiller, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden,  Sweden; 

The research was supported financially by the Swedish Energy Agency and by Bertil och Britt Svenssons Stiftelse för Belysningsteknik, as well as by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.

Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Rex, E., Hallquist, L., Karlsson, B., Carolina, H. & Alguren, P. (2022). Hållbarhetseffekter av ljus som tjänst.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbarhetseffekter av ljus som tjänst
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2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Inom cirkulär ekonomi är funktionsförsäljning en affärsmodell som väntas ge incitament för tillverkare att göra produkter som håller längre och använder färre resurser över tid, och även säkerställer återbruk och återvinning vid end-of-life. Inom belysning kan detta exempelvis ta uttryck i att sälja ljus som tjänst. Denna rapport går igenom olika hållbarhetsaspekter relaterade till belysning, såväl miljömässiga som sociala och ekonomiska, och hur de skulle kunna påverkas av ett skifte i affärsmodell från traditionellt linjärt produktköp till ljus som tjänst. Arbetet har haft fokus på allmänbelysning inomhus i skolor och kontor i Sverige och fokuserat på områden där ett skifte i affärsmodell skulle kunna ha inverkan på hållbarhet. Det finns många olika strategier för att öka cirkularitet inom belysning, från cirkulärt anpassad hårdvara till ändrade affärsmodeller. I denna rapport används företaget Brightecos erbjudande av ljus som tjänst som exempel på en cirkulär affärsmodell, och diskuterar hur affärsmodellen kan påverka förutsättningar för hållbarhet relativt traditionellt linjärt produktköp. De exempel som studerats indikerar att ljus som tjänst i dagsläget inte är företagsekonomiskt fördelaktigt, sett till enbart kostnader för belysning. Ur ett större hållbarhetsperspektiv där även effekter på miljö, välbefinnande och samhällsekonomi räknas in, är det däremot troligen att föredra. De största miljövinsterna med Brighecos modell är dess potential att minska resursanvändning och avfall, stimulera teknikbyte till LED och minska risk för överinstallation av produkter. Samtidigt innebär affärsmodellen en ökad sannolikhet för att belysningsfrågor uppmärksammas och anpassningar görs för ökat välbefinnande hos användarna. Detta skulle kunna leda till betydande besparingar för såväl organisationer som samhälle, men det är effekter som är svåra att mäta och det råder således stor osäkerhet på storheterna. De potentiella fördelar för ekonomi, miljö och välbefinnande som denna rapport pekat på när det gäller ljus som tjänst är möjliga att uppnå även på andra sätt, exempelvis genom en kombination av olika produkter och tjänster. Ljus som tjänst är dock en affärsmodell som ökar förutsättningarna för att denna typ av åtgärder blir av, inte minst i organisationer som kanske inte själva har stark belysningskompetens.

Publisher
p. 56
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:91
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60145 (URN)978-91-89711-31-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-09-22 Created: 2022-09-22 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Carolina, H. & Isaksson, C. (2021). Att utforma teknik med användarna i sikte: intervjuer med tillverkare av energitekniska installationer för småhus.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att utforma teknik med användarna i sikte: intervjuer med tillverkare av energitekniska installationer för småhus
2021 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Designing technology with users in mind – Interviews with manufacturers of heating and ventilation systems for single-family houses: Implementing technology with good energy performance in our homes is crucial to be able to reduce the energy use and achieve society's energy goals. However, technical measures alone are not enough; how residents interact with and use the technology is also important. The current study revolved around how different users are considered by technology manufacturers in the design of the technology. The objectives of the study were to examine manufacturers' motives and ideas about how heating and ventilation systems are designed and their views on the communication with end users. To explore this, interviews were conducted with manufacturers of heat pumps and ventilation units for single-family houses. The interview study showed that there are several challenges when manufacturers are to consider users' interaction with the technology. It regards designing the products, and especially their interfaces, for different types of users – where the manufacturers hold the view that many users do not have knowledge or understanding of the product. Another challenge is the frequency of interaction with the product, meaning that heating and ventilation systems are technologies that residents usually do not need to interact with very often. This can lead to an unfamiliarity with handling the technology when it is actually required. Also, manufacturers do not have much direct contact with end users, which becomes a particular challenge in shaping the communication and support for users, as well as gaining knowledge about users' real needs. Residents' expectations of high comfort in their homes regarding heating and hot water are anticipated to pose another challenge, especially in supporting households to save energy. The question is then: how are these challenges handled by the manufacturers and how do they design the technology with the users in mind? First and foremost, it was evident during the interviews that a prominent position among the manufactures is that users should not have to interact with the products to any great extent at all. This position has led the manufacturers to design the technology for minimal use and maintenance. But there is somewhat of a duality. While the manufacturers design for a minimal use, they also strive to keep up with recent developments and invest in modern user interfaces, Internet-connected products, and new mobile applications. Several manufacturers have, to varying degrees, involved users and considered their needs in the development of products and interfaces. This has resulted in functions in the interfaces that are adapted to the users. The functions are organised in the interfaces to, together with the use of intuitive icons, create clarity and simplicity for the users. Energy-saving settings, including "eco-mode" and functions to reduce "unnecessary" energy use, have also been developed by several manufacturers. The communication from manufacturers to end users is mostly one-way, but during the interviews there were examples of how manufacturers work in different ways to make information easily accessible to users. For the two-way communication with end users, other professionals, such as dealers and technicians, play an important role in providing households with relevant information and technical support related to the technology. Further developments with more connected products, better control systems, and a higher degree of automation were seen as responses to many of the above-mentioned challenges as well. From the manufacturers' perspectives and views of the users, the study has provided insights that can be useful also in future challenges and opportunities regarding human interaction with, often increasingly advanced, technology. It can involve directing households even more clearly towards energy-saving behaviours or how future services in the “energy-smart home” can be designed based on the needs of end users.

Publisher
p. 38
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2021:62
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57325 (URN)978-91-89385-52-8 (ISBN)
Funder
ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)
Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Carolina, H. (2020). What have residents got todo with it?: Variations in energy use and energy-related behaviours in single-family houses. (Doctoral dissertation). Lund
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What have residents got todo with it?: Variations in energy use and energy-related behaviours in single-family houses
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To achieve global energy goals, energy use in residential buildings must decrease. The implementation of technical measures is crucial but alone it is not sufficient; residents need to change their behaviour as well. However, households are not a homogeneous group in terms of their energy use and behaviour; rather, the use varies between households and over time. To promote energy savings in buildings, these variations need to be explored. The main objectives of this thesis were therefore to examine how energy use in single-family houses varied and how energy-related behaviours of households influenced the use of energy. The examined energy variations included changes over time, differences between households and variations of energy use throughout the day. The impact on these variations from the residents' activities and everyday behaviours was studied as well. A partially multidisciplinary approach was employed, whereby the following methods were combined: energy data analyses with interviews, energy performance measurements with calculations, and time-use diaries with energy measurements. A literature review was also conducted. The participating households lived in electrically heated, detached, single-family houses, built in Sweden in the 1980s. The residences spanned three different housing areas, each of which encompassed similar houses. The thesis showed that on an aggregated level, the energy use was stable over years of occupancy. An individual household's energy usage could, however, both increase and decrease over time, depending on several activities occurring over the years. On a group level, the daily electricity load curves differed between weekdays and weekend days, with clear power peaks in the morning and evening on weekdays. That is, during these peak hours the households contributed to potential power deficits in the energy system. Large differences between similar houses' energy use were demonstrated, similar to findings in other research. Differences of a factor of two to three between the highest and lowest energy usages were discovered; for water use, the differences were even greater, namely a factor of six. The studies found that there were many ways to be a high or a low consumer. That is, most of the households exhibited a range of different energy-related behaviours contributing to their energy use. In addition, there was a spread between households in how long they performed various activities. Moreover, the thesis showed a parallel use of electronic devices of the same type, which meant that each household member owned their own set of devices, potentially leading to an increased use of electricity at the household level. The findings in the thesis are of value when measures are designed to encourage residents to save energy and reduce power peaks. By field measurements, the empirical studies provided technical and resident-related information that is useful when estimating and verifying energy use of buildings. Additionally, the thesis contributed to the field of multidisciplinary research on household energy use as both technical and social perspectives were in focus – an approach that not only attempted to measure actual energy data, but also to reveal the behaviours that were concealed behind the data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: , 2020. p. 235
Series
Lund University Doctoral Thesis, ISSN 0349-4950 ; TVBH-1023
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52478 (URN)978-91-88722-66-9 (ISBN)978-91-88722-67-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-10-01, 09:49
Supervisors
Note

FORMAS, a Swedish research council for sustainable development. Swedish Energy Agency. Västra Götalandsregionen. Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE). Åke och Greta Lissheds stiftelse. Maj and Hilding Brosenius Research Foundation.

Available from: 2021-02-24 Created: 2021-02-23 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, C., Carolina, H. & Lane, A.-L. (2019). Active, passive, non-existing or conditional?: Social relations shaping energy use at workplaces. Energy Research & Social Science, 51, 148-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active, passive, non-existing or conditional?: Social relations shaping energy use at workplaces
2019 (English)In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 51, p. 148-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency concerns the entire workplace and a cooperative approach is important for achieving ambitious energy reduction targets. Despite this, many organisations still mainly regard energy efficiency as a technical issue involving just a few specialists. A focus on the social relations and processes that shape work on energy issues is lacking. The aim of this paper is to illuminate and explore social relations between the staff driving energy issues and their co-workers. The analysis presented is based upon two features shaping their mutual engagement for reducing energy use: the communication strategy on energy issues undertaken by the workplace and the support for energy efficiency and conservation among the staff. The study provides insights gained from an interview study done in a Swedish organisation as well as from social science research in the field. The result is a conceptual framework that describes four relationships between the drivers of change and their co-workers. These relationships are characterized as active, passive, non-existing and conditional engagement in energy efficiency and conservation. The framework can be used as a tool for identifying social constraints and possibilities for reducing the use of energy at workplaces as well as in other contexts.

Keywords
Energy conservation, Energy efficiency, Social potential, Social relations, Workplace
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37748 (URN)10.1016/j.erss.2018.12.014 (DOI)2-s2.0-85060531982 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Alternatives Research and Development Foundation, ARDF; Funding details: Göteborg Energi; Funding text 1: This research is part of the project, ‘Communication strategies for sustainable energy use in buildings’, funded by the Swedish company Göteborg Energi , through their foundation for research and development. We would like to thank the participants in the interview study

Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2023-05-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2302-9098

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