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Publications (10 of 49) Show all publications
Malmek, K., Larsson, L., Werner, S., Ringsberg, J., Bensow, R. & Finnsgård, C. (2024). Rapid aerodynamic method for predicting the performance of interacting wing sails. Ocean Engineering, 293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid aerodynamic method for predicting the performance of interacting wing sails
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2024 (English)In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 293Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Rapid performance prediction tools are required for the evaluation, optimization, and comparison of different wind propulsion systems (WPSs). These tools should capture viscous aerodynamic flow effects in 3D, particularly the maximum propulsion force, stall angles, and interaction effects between the lift-generating units. This paper presents a rapid aerodynamic calculation method for wing sails that combines a semi-empirical lifting line model with a potential flow-based interaction model to account for 3D interaction effects. The method was applied to a WPS that consisted of several wing sails with considerable interaction effects. The results were compared to CFD RANS simulations in 2D and in 3D. For the evaluated validation cases, the interaction model improved the prediction considerably compared to when the interaction was not accounted for. The method provided acceptable driving force, moments, and stall predictions, with negligible computational cost compared to 3D CFD simulations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Aerodynamic stalling; Computational fluid dynamics; Lift; Ship propulsion; Vehicle performance; Wings, Interaction effect; Lifting line; Lifting line method; Line methods; Propulsion system; Sail interaction; Wind propulsion system; Wind-assisted propulsion; Wind-assisted ship propulsion; Wing sail, Forecasting, aerodynamics; comparative study; computational fluid dynamics; Navier-Stokes equations; performance assessment; potential flow; prediction; Reynolds number; structural component; vessel; wind field
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71698 (URN)10.1016/j.oceaneng.2023.116596 (DOI)2-s2.0-85181147192 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2022/P2021-00275Swedish Research Council, 2018-05973
Note

This research was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency , grant number 2022/P2021-00275 . The 3D CFD simulations were enabled by resources provided by the National Academic Infrastructure for Supercomputing in Sweden (NAISS) and the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at the Chalmers Centre for Computational Science and Engineering (C3SE), High Performance Computing Center North (HPC2N) and Uppsala Multidisciplinary Center for Advanced Computational Science (UPPMAX) partially funded by the Swedish Research Council through grant agreements no. 2022-06725 and 2018-05973

Available from: 2024-02-09 Created: 2024-02-09 Last updated: 2024-02-09Bibliographically approved
Korkmaz, K. B., Kim, K., Liefvendahl, M., Werner, S. & Orych, M. (2023). A Validation Study of Full-Scale CFD Simulation for Sea Trial Performance Prediction of Ships. In: : . Paper presented at X International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering MARINE 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Validation Study of Full-Scale CFD Simulation for Sea Trial Performance Prediction of Ships
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Shipping is a critical component of global trade but also accounts for a substantial portion of global greenhouse gas emissions. Recognising this issue, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has implemented new measures aimed at determining the energy efficiency of all ships and promoting continuous improvements, such as the Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI). As Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be used to calculate the EEXI value, RISE-SSPA1 and Flowtech have developed a CFD-based method for predicting full-scale ship performance with SHIPFLOW v7.0, which meets the new requirements of IMO. The method is validated through an extensive comparison study that examines the delivered power and propeller rotation rate between full-scale CFD predictions and high-quality sea trials using 14 common cargo ships of varying sizes and types. The comparison between the CFD predictions and 59 sea trials shows that both delivered power and RPM can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy, with an average comparison error of about 4% and 2%, respectively. The numerical methods used in this study differ significantly from the majority of the state-of-the-art CFD codes, highlighting their potential for future applications in ship performance prediction. Thorough validation with a large number of sea trials is essential to establish confidence in CFD-based ship performance prediction methods, which is crucial for the credibility of the EEXI framework and its potential to contribute to shipping decarbonisation.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71770 (URN)
Conference
X International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering MARINE 2023
Note

The study was mainly supported by internal strategic funding, which supports development in corecompetence areas. In addition, this work received funds from the Swedish Transport Agency, projectLOVA TRV 2020/92054 and the Swedish Energy Agency, project ITRIM grant 2020/018759.

Available from: 2024-02-14 Created: 2024-02-14 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Gypa, I., Jansson, M., Gustafsson, R., Werner, S. & Bensow, R. (2023). Controllable-pitch propeller design process for a wind-powered car-carrier optimising for total energy consumption. Ocean Engineering, 269, Article ID 113426.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controllable-pitch propeller design process for a wind-powered car-carrier optimising for total energy consumption
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2023 (English)In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 269, article id 113426Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wind-powered ship propulsion (WPSP) is the concept where the wind is the main source of thrust, while the traditional propulsion system operates when needed. This type of propulsion can lead to considerably reduced emissions, something that the shipping community is striving for. A well-known example of WPSP is the Oceanbird with the goal to cut emissions of up to 90%. In this study, the propeller design process for a wind-powered car-carrier (wPCC) such as the Oceanbird is investigated, what the various challenges of WPSP are and therefore how an automated optimisation procedure should be approached. A controllable-pitch propeller was selected as suitable propeller type for the operation of the wPCC, and various functions such as windmilling, feathering and harvesting have been explored. Regarding the optimisation procedure, an essential input is the definition of the operational profile, in order to determine the most important conditions for the route. The main objective of the optimisation is the minimisation of the total energy consumption (TEC), calculated based on a selection of conditions using the potential flow solver MPUF-3A. Cavitation has been evaluated by the blade designer, through an interactive optimisation method. The results showed that designing and optimising for the most highly loaded condition led to solutions with the lowest TEC. © 2022 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Cavitation evaluation, Controllable-pitch propeller, Interactive optimisation, Marine propeller design, Total energy consumption, Wind-powered ship propulsion, Cavitation, Design, Ship propellers, Ship propulsion, Energy-consumption, Interactive optimization, Marine propeller, Propeller design, Total energy, Energy utilization, automation, control system, energy use, machinery, optimization, ship design, structural component, vessel, wind power
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64148 (URN)10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.113426 (DOI)2-s2.0-85145851837 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Stiftelsen Chalmers tekniska högskola, Chalmers'; Funding text 1: Funding for this study was provided by Chalmers University of Technology Foundation, Sweden for the strategic research project Hydro- and aerodynamics; by the Swedish Transportation Agency via Lighthouse through the SailProp project; and by Kongsberg Maritime Sweden AB through the University Technology Centre in Computational Hydrodynamics hosted at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers .

Available from: 2023-03-07 Created: 2023-03-07 Last updated: 2023-04-28Bibliographically approved
Korkmaz, K. B., Werner, S. & Bensow, R. (2023). Investigations on experimental and computational trim optimisation methods. Ocean Engineering, 288, Article ID 116098.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigations on experimental and computational trim optimisation methods
2023 (English)In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 288, article id 116098Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Shipping is vital for global trade but also emits significant greenhouse gases. To address this issue, various measures have been proposed, including improved ship design, alternative fuels, and improved operational practices. One such cost-effective operational measure is trim optimisation, which involves operating the ship at the hydrodynamically optimal forward and aft draughts. This study focuses on investigating the trim trends of a RoPax vessel using experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The trim trends are derived in resistance and self-propelled modes. Multiple CFD methods are examined, along with different extrapolation techniques for experimental results. Uncertainty assessment is conducted for the experimental data, and a verification and validation study is performed. Furthermore, the predictions are compared with real operational data. The findings reveal that determining trim trends solely in towed mode is inadequate due to the profound influence of the operating propeller. Some of the investigated CFD methods demonstrate good agreement with the model test results in self-propelled mode, while others exhibit limitations. By selecting appropriate models and configurations, this study demonstrates that trim trends can be determined with sufficient precision, as evidenced by the comparison between ship operational data and predictions from EFD and CFD methods. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67674 (URN)10.1016/j.oceaneng.2023.116098 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175079044 (Scopus ID)
Note

This research was funded by Energimyndigheten, the Swedish Energy Agency , grant 2020-018759 , and the computational resources provided by RISE-SSPA Maritime Center.

Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2024-02-15Bibliographically approved
Orych, M., Östberg, M., Kjellberg, M., Werner, S. & Larsson, L. (2023). Speed and delivered power in waves — Predictions with CFD simulations at full scale. Ocean Engineering, 285, Article ID 115289.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speed and delivered power in waves — Predictions with CFD simulations at full scale
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2023 (English)In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 285, article id 115289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An efficient numerical method is proposed to estimate delivered power and speed loss for a ship in wind and waves. The added resistance in waves, obtained with an unsteady potential flow panel method, is added to the calm water resistance from a steady-state potential flow/RANS method coupled with a body force propeller model for self-propulsion. A comparison of numerical and experimental results is made for added resistance, calm water resistance and delivered power. A good agreement is obtained. As a practical application, the approach is used to calculate the weather factor, fw, of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The calculated weather factor is consistent with the values derived from full-scale measurements included in a database of similar ships. © 2023 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
CFD, Delivered power, EEDI, Full-scale, Seakeeping, Self-propulsion, Speed loss, validation, Weather factor, Computational fluid dynamics, Numerical methods, Ship propulsion, Ships, Added resistances, Design index, Energy efficiency design index, Power, Weather factors, estimation method, model validation, ship handling, steady-state equilibrium, wave-structure interaction, wind-wave interaction, Energy efficiency
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65703 (URN)10.1016/j.oceaneng.2023.115289 (DOI)2-s2.0-85164663571 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors would like to thank: Energimyndigheten, Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency, project 49300-1) for the financial support and SSPA AB for providing highly valuable validation data.

Available from: 2023-08-09 Created: 2023-08-09 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Werner, S., Papanikolaou, A., Razola, M., Fagergren, C., Dessen, L., Kuttenkeuler, J., . . . Steinbach, C. (2023). The Orcelle project – Towards Wind-Powered Ships for Deep Sea Cargo Transport. In: : . Paper presented at 2023 SNAME Maritime Convention, SMC 2023. San Diego, USA. 27 September 2023 through 29 September 2023.. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Orcelle project – Towards Wind-Powered Ships for Deep Sea Cargo Transport
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

International regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as strong market demand for zero-emission transport calls for a radical change in the shipping industry. Measures such as hull form optimization, use of alternative fuels and efficient machinery systems, new coatings, and smart routing have already improved the energy efficiency of the world fleet and to some extent its GHG emissions. However, it is far from enough. To make the drastic leap that we need in order to meet the climate challenges, we must turn to emission-free energy sources. One such promising and well-proven zero-emission propulsion system for shipping is wind propulsion. Using wind to power cargo vessels restarted on a commercial scale about a decade ago. Currently, there are 25+ wind-assisted vessels in commercial trade. They are equipped with technologies like Flettner rotors, wings or kites, which gives fuel reductions in the magnitude of 1-20 %. Although these are significant fuel savings, this is still not enough to effectively respond to the challenges for zero GHG emissions of the maritime industry. With the goal of demonstrating that even higher energy reduction and drastic reduction of emissions is possible, 11 representatives of the European maritime industry and research community have recently joined forces in the large scale EU-funded project Orcelle, led by Wallenius Wilhelmsen Ocean. The current paper will present the project’s ambition, scope of work and expected outcome. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 2023
Keywords
Commerce; Energy efficiency; Fleet operations; Free energy; Fuel economy; Greenhouse gases; Marine engineering; Ship propulsion; Cargo transport; Decarbonisation; Deep sea; Greenhouse gas emissions; Greenhouse gas reductions; Maritime industry; Wind propulsion; Wing sail; Wing sail, decarbonization; Zero emission; Gas emissions
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68059 (URN)10.5957/SMC-2023-089 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175468775 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2023 SNAME Maritime Convention, SMC 2023. San Diego, USA. 27 September 2023 through 29 September 2023.
Note

The authors acknowledge the financial support from the European Commission and its agency CINEA, grant 101096673 and the Swedish Transport Agency under grant number TRV 2018/96451 (Vinddrivet biltransportfartyg).

Available from: 2023-11-22 Created: 2023-11-22 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Oliveira, D. R., Lagerström, M., Granhag, L., Werner, S., Larsson, A. I. & Ytreberg, E. (2022). A novel tool for cost and emission reduction related to ship underwater hull maintenance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 356, Article ID 131882.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel tool for cost and emission reduction related to ship underwater hull maintenance
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 356, article id 131882Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

International shipping plays a vital role in the world's transport system and economy. However, shipping faces challenges in terms of reducing its environmental and health impact, namely emission of greenhouse gases, air pollutants, and chemical substances to the marine environment. In particular, the roughness condition of underwater surfaces of a ship hull affects the ship's energy efficiency, with marine growth (biofouling) and mechanical roughness leading to propulsion powering penalties. Measures to control biofouling, using antifouling coatings and in-water hull cleaning, may also be associated with significant impacts to the marine environment. In the current study, a new tool is presented, HullMASTER (Hull MAintenance STrategies for Emission Reduction), which aims at enabling the shipping industry and authorities in the Baltic Sea region to make evidence-based decisions on hull maintenance strategies. HullMASTER simulates emissions to air and water, to calculate the differences in economic cost for operators, as well as health- and environmental damage costs between different hull maintenance scenarios. Validation of HullMASTER predictions against 40 vessel-years of in-service performance data on propulsive performance, with operations in the Baltic Sea region, shows good agreement, averaging within 5 percentage-point difference in propulsion penalty. Further, a scenario-based demonstration of HullMASTER on a general cargo vessel shows that, in the comparison between a silicone foul-release coating and business-as-usual scenario of a biocidal coating, retrofitting the coating to a foul-release coating can result in significant savings for society, i.e., along with marginal savings in cost for ship operators. Results for such comparisons and analysis will however be dependent on specific vessel cases and operational profiles, thence the value of an interactive tool such as HullMASTER. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Antifouling coating, Biofouling, Chemical pollution, Energy efficiency measures, Marine environment, Maritime transport, Coatings, Emission control, Greenhouse gases, Hulls (ship), Maintenance, Ship propulsion, Silicones, Surface roughness, Baltic sea, Efficiency measure, Emission reduction, Energy efficiency measure, FOUL-RELEASE COATINGS, Maintenance strategies, Energy efficiency
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60427 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.131882 (DOI)2-s2.0-85129082275 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: European Regional Development Fund, ERDF; Funding details: Trafikverket, 023, 5190054846, TRV 2019/27023; Funding text 1: This study was financed by the project H?LL ? Sustainable ship hull maintenance through development of decision support to the maritime industry and authorities (2019?2021), funded by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) via Lighthouse Swedish Maritime Competence Centre under the ?H?llbar sj?fart? program (Reference TRV 2019/27023, Grant number 5190054846). Erik Ytreberg and Lena Granhag were partly funded by BalticSea2020. Lena Granhag has also been supported by the project COMPLETE PLUS (Practical implementation of the COMPLETE project outputs and tools, #X023), co-financed by the European Union's funding Programme Interreg Baltic Sea Region in 2017?2020 (European Regional Development Fund) and Chalmers Area of Advance Transport.; Funding text 2: This study was financed by the project HÅLL – Sustainable ship hull maintenance through development of decision support to the maritime industry and authorities (2019–2021), funded by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) via Lighthouse Swedish Maritime Competence Centre under the “Hållbar sjöfart” program (Reference TRV 2019/27023, Grant number 5190054846). Erik Ytreberg and Lena Granhag were partly funded by BalticSea2020. Lena Granhag has also been supported by the project COMPLETE PLUS (Practical implementation of the COMPLETE project outputs and tools, #X023), co-financed by the European Union's funding Programme Interreg Baltic Sea Region in 2017–2020 (European Regional Development Fund) and Chalmers Area of Advance Transport.

Available from: 2022-10-20 Created: 2022-10-20 Last updated: 2023-04-28Bibliographically approved
Gerhardt, F., Werner, S., Li, D.-Q. & Malmek, K. (2022). Levelling the Playing Field: A Numerical Platform for the Fair Comparison of Wind Propulsion Systems. In: : . Paper presented at Hiper, Italy (pp. 161).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levelling the Playing Field: A Numerical Platform for the Fair Comparison of Wind Propulsion Systems
2022 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wind propulsion systems (WPS) are major investments and the decision to install them requires careful consideration of many complex questions. One of the recurring and challenging issues for ship owners is the choice of a suitable WPS for a specific ship and a specific operational pattern. Today most WPS providers offer on-demand case studies, but obviously the underlying performance prediction methodologies differ from provider to provider. This makes comparing different technologies from competing suppliers next to impossible. In this paper we present a numerical platform to compare different WPS of different makes, sizes, and costs in a fair way. The fundamental idea is to use aerodynamic WPS datasets that are independently verified by SSPA through wind tunnel test, sea trials or extensive CFD. This is combined with a hydrodynamic dataset from SSPAs database of tank tests. The same performance prediction method, identical routes and weather statistics are then used to determine Key Performance Indicators and financial metrics of the competing wind propulsion technologies. The purpose is to provide guidance for shipowners at the early concept stage of a vessel and help them select a system that suits their particular requirements.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71904 (URN)
Conference
Hiper, Italy
Available from: 2024-02-20 Created: 2024-02-20 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved
Gypa, I., Jansson, M., Gustafsson, R., Werner, S. & Bensow, R. (2022). Propeller design procedure for a wind-assisted KVLCC2. In: PRADS 2022 Book of Abstracts: . Paper presented at 15th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures 09 - 13 OCTOBER 2022 - DUBROVNIK - CROATIA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Propeller design procedure for a wind-assisted KVLCC2
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2022 (English)In: PRADS 2022 Book of Abstracts, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wind-assisted ship propulsion (WASP) has received much attention lately with research focusing on the different sail technologies, ship-hull design optimisation and weather route optimisation. However, the traditional propulsion system is still needed for wind assisted vessels and is associated with several challenges, related to the wide range of operating conditions and propeller loads due to the varying degree of wind-assistance that will occur. In this study we use an interactive design and optimisation methodology applied on propellers of wind-assisted vessels. The methodology involves handling the complete operating profile of the propeller, an optimisation method for interactive cavi-tation evaluation by the blade designer, and the use of a new objective, the total energy consumption (TEC) of the expected operation. We use a case study where the KVLCC2 tanker is retrofitted with six Flettner rotor sails, operating between two fixed destinations at constant speed. The purpose is to investigate to what extent a new propeller design can offer a significantly lower TEC when compared to the existing design. Based on the results of this study, approximately 0.9% further reduction in TEC was achieved with the WASP adapted propeller compared to the existing one.

Keywords
Marine propeller design, Wind-assisted ship propulsion, Interactive optimisation, Fixed-pitch propeller, Total energy consumption.
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61530 (URN)
Conference
15th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures 09 - 13 OCTOBER 2022 - DUBROVNIK - CROATIA
Available from: 2022-12-14 Created: 2022-12-14 Last updated: 2023-04-28Bibliographically approved
Orych, M., Werner, S. & Larsson, L. (2022). Roughness effect modelling for wall resolved RANS – Comparison of methods for marine hydrodynamics. Ocean Engineering, 266, Article ID 112778.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roughness effect modelling for wall resolved RANS – Comparison of methods for marine hydrodynamics
2022 (English)In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 266, article id 112778Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with several aspects of surface roughness modelling in RANS codes applied to full-scale ship simulations. To select a method that is suitable for wall-resolved RANS solvers and gives reliable results at high Reynolds numbers, five different roughness models are compared. A grid uncertainty analysis is performed and the sensitivity to the grid resolution close to the wall (y+) is investigated. The results are compared to extrapolated results of experiments carried out with rough plates with various heights and roughness types. A correlation factor between the Average Hull Roughness and the equivalent sand roughness height is investigated, and a value of five is deemed the most suitable. The work suggests that the Aupoix-Colebrook roughness model gives the best results for full-scale ship simulations, at least with the current code, and that the near-wall grid resolution required for smooth surfaces can be applied also for the rough case. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
CFD, Full-scale, Hull, RANS, Roughness, Ship, Uncertainty, Verification, Hulls (ship), Navier Stokes equations, Reynolds number, Uncertainty analysis, Comparison of methods, Effect model, Grid resolution, Roughness effects, Roughness models, Ship simulation, Surface roughness, hydrodynamics, modeling, wall
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61267 (URN)10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.112778 (DOI)2-s2.0-85140272104 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Vetenskapsrådet, VR, 2016–07213; Funding details: Energimyndigheten; Funding text 1: The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: Michal Orych reports financial support was provided by Energimyndigheten (Swedish Energy Agency). Michal Orych reports a relationship with FLOWTECH International AB that includes: board membership and employment.; Funding text 2: The authors would like to thank Swedish Energy Agency for the financial support. The computations were enabled by resources provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at C3SE, partially funded by the Swedish Research Council through grant agreement no. 2016–07213.

Available from: 2022-11-28 Created: 2022-11-28 Last updated: 2023-04-28Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6266-2320

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