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Larché, N., Leballeur, C., Diler, E. & Thierry, D. (2023). Crevice Corrosion of High-Grade Stainless Steels in Seawater: A Comparison Between Temperate and Tropical Locations. Corrosion, 79(9), 1106-1117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crevice Corrosion of High-Grade Stainless Steels in Seawater: A Comparison Between Temperate and Tropical Locations
2023 (English)In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 79, no 9, p. 1106-1117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The corrosion risk for stainless steel components is not the same in all seawaters, with more failures generally reported in tropical seas. In this study, the influence of biofilm on electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of passive films of high-grade alloys was studied in different seawaters, including temperate seawater (France-Brest, North Atlantic Ocean), tropical seawater (Malaysia-Kelatan, Meridional China Sea), and intermediate conditions in terms of temperature (Brazil-Arraial do Cabo, South Atlantic Ocean). The stabilized open-circuit potentials and the polarization behavior of high-grade stainless steels were measured as a function of temperature in all of the tested field marine stations, providing quantified data and direct comparison of the biofilm-enhanced corrosion risks. Significant differences were measured in tropical and in temperate seawaters in heated conditions. Above 37°C, the biofilm activity was much more pronounced in tropical seawater compared to Atlantic Ocean sites, leading to much higher localized corrosion risk. Crevice corrosion of eight high-grades passive alloys was also studied with the use of crevice formers specifically developed for tube geometries. Duplex UNS S32205, superduplex UNS S32750, hyperduplex UNS S33207 and S32707, and 6Mo stainless steels UNS S31266 have been evaluated together with Ni-based alloys UNS N06845 and N06625. In the more severe conditions, the high-grade alloys UNS S32707 and the 6%Mo UNS S31266, both with pitting resistant equivalent number (PREN) around 50, showed better performance than commonly used superduplex UNS S32750 and UNS S39274 (PREN 40). The corrosion results are discussed regarding the monitored biofilm-induced depolarization measured in the different test conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Materials Protection and Performance, 2023
Keywords
Biofilms; Corrosion resistance; Corrosion resistant alloys; Crevice corrosion; Electrochemical corrosion; Localized corrosion; Nickel alloys; Oceanography; Risk assessment; Seawater corrosion; Steel corrosion; Tropics; Atlantic Ocean; Corrosion risk; Corrosion-resistant alloys; Crevice corrosion; Ennoblement; High grades; Pitting resistant equivalent numbers; Steel components; Superduplex; Tropical location; Stainless steel
National Category
Corrosion Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67717 (URN)10.5006/4370 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173616989 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
Pélissier, K., Diler, E., Dossot, M., Carteret, C., Vittonato, J., Castillon, F., . . . Lucas, P. (2023). Effects and Consequences of an Alkali-Induced Cathodic Environment on Coating Aging. Coatings, 13(11), Article ID 1949.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects and Consequences of an Alkali-Induced Cathodic Environment on Coating Aging
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2023 (English)In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 13, no 11, article id 1949Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of organic coatings in conjunction with cathodic protection (CP) for buried structures is the usual method for protecting steel against corrosion. When the organic coating loses its protective ability, regardless of the reason, the CP becomes the active protection, leading to a specific local environment. This environment can be characterized by high alkalinity, which can be detrimental for the coated structure, either by weakening the steel–coating interface or by the chemical aging of the coating. Thus, the coating must be compatible with CP and able to sustain aging under an alkaline environment. In this study, the susceptibility to alkaline aging and its consequences in regards to coating performance have been investigated for two commercial coatings used for buried structures—fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) and liquid epoxy (LE)—in free membrane and coated steel configurations. The results showed a clear impact of alkaline aging on the studied LE, leading to a significant reduction in coating resistance and ultimately, failure of the steel–coating interface, whereas the studied FBE remained stable. The presented results relate to a precise formulation of LE and FBE; however, the proposed chemical method appears to be relevant and shows the necessity of considering such specific aging results for coating specifications and improvements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-69301 (URN)10.3390/coatings13111949 (DOI)2-s2.0-85177812216 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: This research received no external funding.

Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Larché, N., Leballeur, C., Le Manchet, S. & He, W. (2023). Localized Corrosion of High-Grade Stainless Steels: Grade Selection in Chlorinated Seawater. Corrosion, 79(9), 997-1005
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Localized Corrosion of High-Grade Stainless Steels: Grade Selection in Chlorinated Seawater
2023 (English)In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 79, no 9, p. 997-1005Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chlorination is widely used in seawater systems to avoid fouling and associated microbial-induced corrosion. Free chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent that prevents biofilm formation on immersed surfaces when used above a certain content. However, the presence of residual chlorine associated with the relatively high chloride content in seawater significantly increases the risk of localized corrosion for most stainless steels. In the present study, a module initially developed to quantify the formation of electroactive biofilms on stainless steels has been used to assess the corrosiveness of chlorinated seawater. Both the electrochemical potential and the cathodic current were measured on super-duplex stainless steel as a function of residual chlorine levels and seawater temperatures. In parallel, long-term localized corrosion tests have been performed in simulated environments to assess the environmental limits for the safe use of high-grade stainless steels in chlorinated seawater. It includes crevice corrosion exposure tests using adapted ISO 18070:2015 crevice formers and internal tube pitting corrosion exposure tests in model tube heat exchangers simulating heat flux from 35°C to 170°C. The synergetic effect of residual chlorine content and temperature on the risk of localized corrosion has been quantified. Corrosion resistance properties are correlated to the electrochemical monitoring data, and the environmental limits of selected base materials stainless steels have been established for duplex stainless steel UNS S32205, super-duplex stainless steel UNS S32750, hyper-duplex stainless steels UNS S32707 and UNS S33207, and the high-grade austenitic stainless steel UNS S31266.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Materials Protection and Performance, 2023
Keywords
Biofilms; Chlorination; Chlorine compounds; Corrosion resistance; Crevice corrosion; Electrochemical corrosion; Heat flux; Seawater corrosion; Steel corrosion; Crevice corrosion; Exposure tests; High grades; High-grade stainless steel; Hyper-duplex; Localized corrosion; Residual chlorines; Stainless steel grades; Super duplex; Superduplex stainless steels; Pitting
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67719 (URN)10.5006/4348 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173614123 (Scopus ID)
Note

The following sponsors of the projects used in this study are gratefully acknowledged: Flávia Maciel at PETROBRAS, Thierry Cassagne at TOTAL ENERGIES, Stéphane Trottier at VEOLIA, Lars Mehus at AKER SOLUTIONS, Yves Denos at EDF, Xiaoxue An at TechnipFMC, Viktor Räftegård at VOLVO PENTA, Josefin Eidhagen and Ulf Kivisäkk at Alleima (supply of SAF 2205, SAF 2507, SAF 2707, and SAF 3207 seamless tubes tested in this study), Jean-Marc Lardon at ERAMET AUBERT & DUVAL (supply of UNS S31266 bars tested in this study), INDUSTEEL (supply of UNS S31266 plates tested in this study), Tadashi Kawakami at NIPPON STEEL, Sophie Delettrez, Luciana Lima, and Jérôme Peultier at VALLOUREC, and Valérie Noël at NAVAL GROUP. Pascal Moullec from Institut de la Corrosion is acknowledged for experimental setups and control of the experiments. Dominique Thierry from RISE is also particularly acknowledged for his input and review of the paper.

Available from: 2023-11-03 Created: 2023-11-03 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
Nagels, M., Verhoeven, B., Larché, N., Dewil, R. & Rossi, B. (2022). Comparative life cycle cost assessment of (lean) duplex stainless steel in wastewater treatment environments. Journal of Environmental Management, 306, Article ID 114375.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative life cycle cost assessment of (lean) duplex stainless steel in wastewater treatment environments
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 306, article id 114375Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some unit operations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as settling tanks and pipes for aeration or sludge transfer, are composed of austenitic stainless steel (EN 1.4307 or EN 1.4404) instead of galvanised or painted carbon steel to reduce the maintenance costs. The sensitivity to pitting and crevice corrosion of austenitic grades in certain WWTP environments has also led to the use of duplex grades. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the maintenance of piping systems (WWTPs) and its effect on their life cycle environmental impacts and costs (LCC) for both austenitic and duplex stainless steel grades. The final objective is to aid grade selection for piping in a WWTP environment. The considered functional unit (FU) is a complete piping system. Conventional austenitic stainless steel grades (e.g., EN 1.4404) are studied alongside duplex ones (e.g., EN 1.4362 and EN 1.4462). The calculated environmental impacts are the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Primary Energy Demand (PED). The production, manufacturing, transport, use including maintenance activities, and end-of-life (burdens and credits) phases are included in the life cycle assessment (LCA). The maintenance activities consist of the required replacements of stainless steel piping during the lifespan of the WWTP. Thus, the service lives of the pipes included in the considered WWTP environment are determined based on long-term corrosion prediction models (power law), which predict the evolution of pit or crevice depth as a function of time. The model parameters are estimated based on own experimental results, supplemented by the existing literature. The corrosion rates determine the number and frequency of replacements, i.e., define the different scenarios of maintenance. The LCA, LCC and corrosion prediction models are then combined into a user-friendly tool, which can be used in industry for an appropriate grade selection for pipes in a WWTP environment. The tool includes several degrees of freedom such as piping distribution, water pressure, chloride content, replacement criteria, etc. The results show that using duplex stainless steel grade EN 1.4462 leads to lower GWP and PED at the end of the WWTP's service life of 40 years. This is mainly due to multiple replacements of the system's parts in wastewater with high levels of chloride (>3000 ppm) if more conventional austenitic stainless steel alloys such as EN 1.4404 are used. Leaner duplex stainless steel grades were also included in this LCC assessment. The duplex grade EN 1.4062 showed the lowest total LCC, thanks to its leaner chemical composition (i.e., lower nickel content) combined with good localized corrosion resistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2022
Keywords
Corrosion modelling, Life cycle assessment, Wastewater treatment, aeration, chemical composition, comparative study, cost analysis, life cycle analysis, piping, replacement, wastewater treatment plant, stainless steel, steel, animal, corrosion, life cycle stage, water management, Animals, Life Cycle Stages, Water Purification
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58511 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.114375 (DOI)2-s2.0-85123116496 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCS, 749632; Funding text 1: This research was funded by the European government in the form of a Research Fund for Coal and Steel ( RFCS ) project under grant agreement number 749632 (2017–2020): “DuplexWASTE: Lean Duplex Stainless Steel for Urban and Industrial Wastewater”.

Available from: 2022-02-17 Created: 2022-02-17 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Nagels, M., Verhoeven, B., Larché, N., Dewil, R. & Rossi, B. (2022). Corrosion behaviour of lean duplex stainless steel in advanced oxidation process (AOP) based wastewater treatment plants. Engineering Failure Analysis, 136, Article ID 106170.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrosion behaviour of lean duplex stainless steel in advanced oxidation process (AOP) based wastewater treatment plants
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2022 (English)In: Engineering Failure Analysis, ISSN 1350-6307, E-ISSN 1873-1961, Vol. 136, article id 106170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The corrosion of lean duplex stainless steel alloys is examined when applied as a construction material in advanced oxidation processes. Both electrochemical and immersion experiments have been carried out when subjecting wastewater to ozone or Fenton oxidation. The electrochemical experiments suggest that the presence of dissolved ozone at the levels tested does not result in an increased pitting susceptibility for none of the alloys included in the research. However, the application of Fenton reagents induces pitting corrosion to the studied lean duplex alloys. The immersion experiments highlight that crevice corrosion occurs during wastewater treatment with both ozone and Fenton reagents. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Advanced Oxidation Process, Electrochemistry, Fenton, Lean Duplex stainless steel, Ozone, Alloy steel, Corrosive effects, Crevice corrosion, Oxidation, Pitting, Steel corrosion, Wastewater treatment, Advanced Oxidation Processes, Corrosion behaviour, Electrochemicals, Fenton's oxidation, Fenton's reagents, Ozone oxidation, Process-based, Stainless steel alloys
National Category
Corrosion Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59013 (URN)10.1016/j.engfailanal.2022.106170 (DOI)2-s2.0-85125403501 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: European Commission, EC; Funding details: Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCS, 709480; Funding text 1: This research was funded by the European Union in the form of a Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) project (project no.: 709480: “DuplexWASTE: Lean Duplex Stainless Steel for Urban and Industrial Wastewater”). The Private Foundation De Nayer is kindly thanked for funding the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Pélissier, K., Le Bozec, N., Thierry, D. & Larché, N. (2022). Evaluation of the Long-Term Performance of Marine and Offshore Coatings System Exposed on a Traditional Stationary Site and an Operating Ship and Its Correlation to Accelerated Test. Coatings, 12(11)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Long-Term Performance of Marine and Offshore Coatings System Exposed on a Traditional Stationary Site and an Operating Ship and Its Correlation to Accelerated Test
2022 (English)In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 12, no 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anticorrosive coatings are widely used to protect steel against corrosion. Different standards exist to access the corrosion performance of anticorrosive paints. Among them, the so-called neutral salt spray test (NSST-ISO 9227) or cycling corrosion tests ISO 12944-6, ISO 12944-9, NACE TM0304, or NACE TM0404 can be named. It is well-known that some accelerated corrosion tests are not fully representative of the field exposure results. However, a lack in the literature exists correlating accelerated tests to field exposure, especially when long-term durations are considered. In this study, 11 different organic coatings have been investigated in terms of coating resistance to corrosion creep in two types of field exposure sites, namely a stationary site and an operating ship, and their performance was compared to two accelerated tests (ISO 12944-9 and modified ASTM D5894 standard). The results showed differences in the sites’ corrosivity and the coating systems’ performance as a function of the exposure sites. A lack of correlation exists between the ISO 12944-9 standard and the stationary site, due to the latter’s high corrosivity, while, to the contrary, a satisfying correlation with the operating ship was demonstrated; whereas, the modified ASTM D5894 standard showed a satisfying correlation with both types of sites.

Keywords
long-term field exposure, marine coatings, offshore coatings, ISO 12944-9, ASTM D5894
National Category
Marine Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-63575 (URN)10.3390/coatings12111758 (DOI)
Note

 This research received no external funding

Available from: 2023-01-30 Created: 2023-01-30 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Vucko, F., Ringot, G., Thierry, D. & Larché, N. (2022). Fatigue Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Exposed in Natural Seawater Under Cathodic Protection. Frontiers in Materials, 9, Article ID 826189.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Exposed in Natural Seawater Under Cathodic Protection
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Materials, ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 9, article id 826189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Under operating conditions, alternated loading and fatigue are encountered, controlling the durability and safety of components and structures made of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS). In particular, the use of a cathodic protection (CP) system to protect the structure against corrosion can induce hydrogen charging of the SDSS. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of some industrial products made of SDSS 2507 (UNS S32750), without artificial thermal aging, under test conditions as close as possible to real environments. In situ fatigue tests under alternated 4-point bending conditions were conducted in natural seawater with and without CP. The fatigue behavior was evaluated as a function of environmental parameters, such as temperature, and material parameters, particularly the austenite spacing and microstructure around orbital welds by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding and stress concentrations, through the presence of surface defects. The fatigue life obtained in air or in seawater at the open circuit potential (OCP) was rather similar. Fatigue life enhancement was systematically observed under CP particularly in the range of low applied load, despite evidence of brittle failure on the fracture surfaces of samples tested under CP. The data suggest immunity of the SDSS to hydrogen embrittlement under the present experimental conditions of fatigue testing. Copyright © 2022 Vucko, Ringot, Thierry and Larché.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
cathodic protection (CP), fatigue, hydrogen, natural seawater, super duplex stainless steel, Bending tests, Cathodic protection, Durability, Fatigue of materials, Hydrogen embrittlement, Inert gases, Seawater, Steel corrosion, Surface defects, Thermal aging, Cathodic protection systems, Fatigue behaviour, Hydrogen charging, Industrial product, Operating condition, Real environments, Superduplex stainless steels, Test condition, Fatigue testing
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58778 (URN)10.3389/fmats.2022.826189 (DOI)2-s2.0-85124618547 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text 1: The authors declare that this study received funding from ARCOR association in the frame of the Member Research Consortium (MRC) “Marine Corrosion”. The industrial members of this association are: Aker Solutions, Aperam, DGA, EDF, Equinor, FlexiFrance/TechnipFMC, Industeel ArcelorMittal, IxBlue, Neotiss, National Oilwell Varco, Outokumpu, Saipem, Sandvik, Thalès, TotalEnergies, Vallourec, Veolia, voestalpine BOHLER Edelstahl, and Volvo Penta. The design of the study and the decision to publish the paper was discussed and validated with the consortium. The funders were not involved in the collection, analysis, interpretation of data and the writing of this article.; Funding text 2: The authors acknowledge the industrial partners of the Member Research Consortium (MRC) “Marine Corrosion” from the ARCOR association for funding, material supply, and fruitful discussions on

Available from: 2022-03-04 Created: 2022-03-04 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Helbert, V., Nazarov, A., Vucko, F., Larché, N. & Thierry, D. (2021). Effect of cathodic polarisation switch-off on the passivity and stability to crevice corrosion of aisi 304l stainless steel. Materials, 14(11), Article ID 2921.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of cathodic polarisation switch-off on the passivity and stability to crevice corrosion of aisi 304l stainless steel
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2021 (English)In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 11, article id 2921Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of cathodic polarisation switch-off on the passivation of AISI 304L stainless steel in air and its crevice corrosion susceptibility in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous electrolyte were investigated. Scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) data showed that the oxide film is significantly destabilised and the rate of steel passivation in air is slowed down. Thermal desorption analysis (TDA) highlighted that hydrogen absorption is proportional to the applied cathodic current density. A special crevice corrosion set-up was designed to realise simultaneous reproducible monitoring of potential and galvanic current to study the impact of prior cathodic polarisation on crevice corrosion onset. © 2021 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2021
Keywords
Cathodic polarisation, Crevice corrosion, Electrochemical measurements, Hydrogen, Passivation, SKP, Stainless steel, TDA, Electrolytes, Galvanic corrosion, Oxide films, Polarization, Sodium chloride, Steel corrosion, AISI 304L stainless steel, Aqueous electrolyte, Cathodic current density, Crevice corrosion susceptibility, Hydrogen absorption, Scanning Kelvin probes, Steel passivation, Thermal desorption analysis, Austenitic stainless steel
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-54684 (URN)10.3390/ma14112921 (DOI)2-s2.0-85107364149 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-06-28 Created: 2021-06-28 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Larché, N., Emo, B., Thierry, D., Duquesnes, V. & Mendibide, C. (2021). Localized corrosion of lean duplex stainless steels in H2S-containing wet atmosphere from urban wastewater treatment units. Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion (11), 1730
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Localized corrosion of lean duplex stainless steels in H2S-containing wet atmosphere from urban wastewater treatment units
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2021 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, no 11, p. 1730-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With lower alloying costs and higher mechanical properties, lean duplex stainless steels can be a good alternative to the more commonly used austenitic stainless steels. A study was initiated to define the limits of the use of lean duplex stainless steels for urban wastewater treatment (WWT) units. This paper gives and discusses the corrosion results in an aerated wet atmosphere containing H2S at different levels. Exposures were performed both at laboratory scale and in the field WWT plant for 1 year. A specific probe was also designed to study the corrosion process below water condensate film contaminated with H2S. Under such conditions, the properties of stainless steel were strongly modified with an enhanced risk of localized corrosion. The results obtained on lean duplex materials (UNS S32101, S32202, and S32304) are compared with austenitic UNS S30403 and UNS S31603 and with the more standard duplexes UNS S82441 and UNS S32205. The results show that lean duplexes can be used in aerated wet atmospheres in case of moderate contamination of H2S (<10 ppm) and chloride (<200 ppm). For higher contaminations (e.g., H2S around 100 ppm/chloride around 1000 ppm) the duplex S32205 should be preferred.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2021
Keywords
H2S, lean duplex, localized corrosion, stainless steels, wastewater, wet corrosion, Atmospheric corrosion, Austenite, Chlorine compounds, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrogen sulfide removal (water treatment), Steel corrosion, Wastewater treatment, Alloying costs, Austenitic, Condensate films, Corrosion process, Lean duplex stainless steel, Lean duplexes, Duplex stainless steel
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-54688 (URN)10.1002/maco.202112508 (DOI)2-s2.0-85107825521 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCS, 749632; Funding text 1: Stéphane Deleris, David Lahache, Jean Francois Mougel, and Catalin Biscu are acknowledged for their help in field exposures in Brussels. Veronique Hocquet, Olivier Colombero, and Paul Sacristan are acknowledged for their help in field exposures in Cap Sicié. This study shows part of the results from a European project supported by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS), under the Grant Agreement Number 749632 (2017–2020).

Available from: 2021-06-28 Created: 2021-06-28 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Larché, N., Emo, B., Allion, A., Johansson, E. & Thierry, D. (2021). Localized corrosion of (lean) duplex stainless steels in immersion units of urban wastewater treatment plants. Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, 72(8), 1338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Localized corrosion of (lean) duplex stainless steels in immersion units of urban wastewater treatment plants
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2021 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 1338-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With lower alloying cost and higher mechanical properties, lean duplex stainless steels can be an alternative to the more commonly used austenitic stainless steels. However, these alloys are still not the preferred choice, probably due to a lack of field experience. A study was thus initiated in view of defining the limits of use of selected (lean) duplexes for urban wastewater treatment units. The present paper shows the localized corrosion performance of selected lean duplexes in chloride contaminated solutions. The results are compared with austenitic S30403 and S31603 and with the more standard duplexes S82441 and S32205. The effect of welding was also investigated. Exposures in field municipal wastewater plants were conducted for 1 year in low and high chloride content units. The results show that lean duplexes S32101 and S32202 can be used as alternatives to S30403 and S31603 in low chloride electrolytes. At 500 ppm of chloride content, duplex stainless steel S32304 showed better corrosion resistance than S30403 and S31603. For higher chloride contents (1000 ppm and above) the standard duplexes S82441 and S32205 shall be preferred. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2021
Keywords
crevice corrosion, lean duplex, pitting, stainless steels, wastewater, welding, Austenite, Chlorine compounds, Corrosion resistance, Duplex stainless steel, Localized corrosion, Sewage treatment plants, Steel corrosion, Wastewater treatment, Water treatment plants, Chloride contents, Chloride electrolytes, Contaminated solutions, Corrosion performance, Field experience, Lean duplex stainless steel, Municipal wastewaters, Urban wastewater treatment plants, Austenitic stainless steel
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-54691 (URN)10.1002/maco.202112298 (DOI)2-s2.0-85100468848 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCS, 749632; Funding text 1: Stéphane Deleris, David Lahache, Jean Francois Mougel, and Catalin Biscu are acknowledged for their help in field exposures in Brussels. Veronique Hocquet, Olivier Colombero, and Paul Sacristan are acknowledged for their help in field exposures in Cap Sicié. This study shows part of the results from a European project supported by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS), under grant agreement number 749632 (2017–2020).

Available from: 2021-06-28 Created: 2021-06-28 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
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