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Rönnqvist, M., Frisk, M., Flisberg, P., Casimir, J., Engström, J., Hansson, E. & Kihlstedt, A. (2023). Collaboration and optimization in farmland exchanges. International Transactions in Operational Research, 30(4), 1591-1616
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaboration and optimization in farmland exchanges
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2023 (English)In: International Transactions in Operational Research, ISSN 0969-6016, E-ISSN 1475-3995, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 1591-1616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To keep businesses competitive in world markets, the number of farms in most countries is decreasing while farm size is increasing, and parcels making up the farm area are extremely fragmented. It is common for farms to expand faster than available arable land near the farm center, leading to longer distances between the farm center and field areas. Consequently, logistic costs increase and affect the farm's profitability and the environment. Moreover, there is often substantial overlap between different farms, which implies that it is possible for farmers to collaborate with each other. We developed and proposed three optimization models to describe different levels of collaboration and sharing restrictions. Many practical considerations need to be weighed, such as the soil type and crops used. We collected detailed information on farms, parcels, and cost drivers in seven large instances for our case study in Sweden. One instance had 1431 farms and 32,091 parcels with 96 crop types. The resulting optimization models were very large; special pre-processing and optimization techniques were developed for their solutions. The theoretical potential for collaboration in logistic cost reduction was very large, ranging from approximately 10% to 50% depending on the form of the collaboration. Because a large part of costs comes from less use of diesel for transport resources, the reduction in cost is directly related to a reduction in CO2 emissions. © 2022 The Authors. International Transactions in Operational Research

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023
Keywords
agriculture, environment, integer programming, land development, logistics, natural resources, practice of OR, Cost reduction, Crops, International trade, % reductions, Arable land, Farm size, Integer Program- ming, Logistic costs, Optimisations, World market
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59250 (URN)10.1111/itor.13145 (DOI)2-s2.0-85128655560 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-23 Created: 2022-05-23 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Casimir, J. & Lund, J. (2020). A roadmap to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne Sweden - Case study grain milling industry.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A roadmap to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne Sweden - Case study grain milling industry
2020 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents the results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and focuses on the development of a roadmap for the grain processing industry to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne. More information concerning the Swedish contribution can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).The Swedish partners of the AGROinLOG project have been interacting with different stakeholders from the grain processing industry in Skåne (South of Sweden) to investigate the existing hinders and drivers for the development of Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres (IBLC) in the region. This report focuses in particular into the milling industry in Skåne in regard to its potential, the utilization of the by-product bran and limitation for the implementation of IBLC. The objective of this reports is to propose a roadmap for the transformation of the current milling sector into an IBLC.The reader will first get a brief introduction to the IBLC concept and a detailed status of the cereal production and milling industry in Skåne. The process for data collection included many interactions with the industry and other relevant stakeholders. The results are then presented.The roadmap uses a backcasting approach starting with the development of a desired sustainable vision of the future. The vision foreseen that mills have developed into IBLCs and collaborate with many actors to produce a wider range of products and add values to other by-products than the mills’ own by-products. This new activity is profitable for the mills but also for other processing industries. The products developed are highly demanded by the consumers.The authors then mapped the current situation looking in particular at hinders, potential conflict of interest, and policy support. The hinders could be clustered into six categories: supply, communication, regulation, economy, market, and logistic. The conflict of interest for the valorisation of bran is low as it is used for human consumption to a low extent. It could however conflict with the animal feeding industry. Different kind of supports are needed at the different stage of the innovation development. Skåne, and Sweden in general have good access to supporting schemes. More technical data concerning the current status of the milling sector is included in the background chapter.Finally, concrete measures for moving from the current situation to the vision are discussed. The most important measure to implement would be to develop a market for the new bio-based products. To support this, a number of measures should be implemented in a joint effort. These measures include technical development, collaboration, and communication. Moreover, sustainability must be a red thread in this transformation, and new legislation should provide a supportive framework.

Publisher
p. 21
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2020:39
Keywords
Roadmap, grain sector, milling industry, bran, IBLC, bioeconomy
National Category
Agricultural Science Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44976 (URN)978-91-89167-21-6 (ISBN)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Grant Agreement 727921
Note

EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921)

Available from: 2020-05-08 Created: 2020-05-08 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
Casimir, J. & Gunnarsson, C. (2020). Farmers current practices, and their opinion on supplying straw for production of second-generation biofuels in Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Farmers current practices, and their opinion on supplying straw for production of second-generation biofuels in Sweden
2020 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and especially focuses on the results from a survey looking at the current practices with straw use in Sweden as well as the farmer’s opinion on supplying straw for the production of second-generation biofuel. The survey was developed as a collaboration between LRF (Federation of Swedish farmers) RISE and Lantmännen.The reader can first read about the context within which the survey was developed and analysed. The questions and the methodology are then presented. The main part of the report presents the questionnaire results before drawing conclusions in line with the project’s objectives.The survey shows that about 60% of the straw from farmers participating in the survey, remains in the field while 40% is harvested mostly for animal production. The county of Skåne, the “ÖSÖ” region (Östergötland, Södermanland, and Örebro counties), the region including Uppsala, Stockholm and Västmanland counties, and the county of Västra Götaland have the largest potential for collection of straw for industrial processes in Sweden. However, farmers from these regions are the most concerned about the decrease of soil quality due to straw removal. The current common practices for straw handling in Sweden, including baling, collection, transport, storage and sale, are highlighted.Some interesting conclusions are drawn concerning the logistics needed for the handling of straw for the biobased industry. Moreover, the answers from the survey give some insights concerning a potential “straw contract” between Lantmännen and the farmers. The report also highlights the aspects to be further researched.More information concerning the Swedish contribution to the AGROinLOG project can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).

Publisher
p. 26
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2020:38
Keywords
Straw, second generation biofuel, survey, farmers, Sweden, bioeconomy
National Category
Renewable Bioenergy Research Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44975 (URN)978-91-89167-20-9 (ISBN)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Grant Agreement 727921
Note

EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921)

Available from: 2020-05-08 Created: 2020-05-08 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Gunnarsson, C., Lund, J., Casimir, J. & Myrbeck, Å. (2020). Sustainable straw potential in Sweden – a case study to supply straw for ethanol production. In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings2020, Pages 86-8828th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, e-EUBCE 2020; Virtual, Online; ; 6 July 2020 through 9 July 2020: . Paper presented at 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, e-EUBCE 2020, 6 July 2020 through 9 July 2020 (pp. 86-88). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable straw potential in Sweden – a case study to supply straw for ethanol production
2020 (English)In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings2020, Pages 86-8828th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, e-EUBCE 2020; Virtual, Online; ; 6 July 2020 through 9 July 2020, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2020, p. 86-88Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When agriculture is to supply a growing bioeconomy with biomass, straw has been identified as one of residues with the largest potential. As removal of straw from fields will have a negative impact on soil humus development compared with straw incorporation it is important to make sure that a system including straw removal does not negatively effect the long-term soil fertility. As part of the EU-financed project AGROinLOG a Swedish demonstration case was made to supply 80,000 tonnes of winter wheat straw annually to 2nd generation bioethanol production. The straw removal from the case study area of Norrköping and surrounding counties, in the south-eastern part of Sweden, was evaluated from a soil fertility aspect using a model that estimates the sustainability of a cropping system regarding soil fertility and yield levels based on humus content, climate and soil type. The assessment revealed the possibility to remove 230,000 tonnes of winter wheat straw from the surrounding counties of Norrköping without reaching the humus limit. The margin to 80,000 tonnes is large and collecting this amount of winter wheat straw annually may well be possible. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2020
Keywords
Agricultural residues, Biobased economy, Lignocellulose, Second generation ethanol, Soil fertility, Wheat straw
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51207 (URN)2-s2.0-85097404669 (Scopus ID)
Conference
28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, e-EUBCE 2020, 6 July 2020 through 9 July 2020
Available from: 2021-01-11 Created: 2021-01-11 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Casimir, J. & Sindhöj, E. (2019). Possibilities and bottlenecks for implementing slurry acidification techniques in Russian and Belarus.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibilities and bottlenecks for implementing slurry acidification techniques in Russian and Belarus
2019 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This report: summarizes expert judgements on how slurry acidification technologies (SATs) could be implemented in Belarus and North West Russia. Special focus on bottlenecks for implementing SATs with existing manure management systems was considered.

In Belarus and North West Russia, a smaller proportion of manure is handled as slurry compared to EU Baltic Sea countries, but this might be due to the high poultry production in Russia since most poultry manure is solid. None the less, SATs are currently only available for slurry manure handling systems and not for solid or semi-solid manure.

Regarding the current systems used in Russia and Belarus some SATs may be easier to implement than others. For instance, due to health issues, farms do not store manure under animal houses. Further studies related to the legislation are needed to reveal if this factor is a potential bottleneck for the in-house SAT. In-storage SATs, both long term and just before spreading should be possible to implement based on the current handling practices, even in Belarus where lagoons are very commons to store slurry. In-field SATs also have a good potential for implementation, but it is worth mentioning that machine contractors in agriculture are nearly non-existent in these two countries and equipment is usually owned by each farm.

More information concerning economics and environmental impacts as well as safety issues related to acid handling are still needed to fully understand the implementation potential of SATs in Belarus and Russia.

Publisher
p. 36
Keywords
Manure; Slurry; acidfiication; ammonia emission; agriculture; environment; Cleantech
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38325 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Casimir, J., Engström, J., Flisberg, P., Hansson, E., Kihlstedt, A. & Rönnqvist, M. (2019). Skiftning av åkermark för ett effektivare jordbruk.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skiftning av åkermark för ett effektivare jordbruk
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Antalet gårdar i Sverige minskar medan deras storlek ökar för att kunna hålla verksamheten konkurrenskraftig på marknaden. En vanlig situation är att gården vill expandera snabbare än det finns tillgänglig mark nära gårdscentrum. Detta leder till att gården får längre avstånd till sin åkermark. Detta extra avstånd har en kostnad, både för gårdens lönsamhet och för miljön.

En föregående pilotstudie studerade kostnaden för transport av skörd och stallgödsel (spannmål, vall och stallgödsel). Studien visade att kostnader för transporter blir minst halverad om man byter till mark som ligger närmare gården. Denna studie studerade endast fyra gårdar, och inkluderade inte sociala aspekter.

Detta fortsättningsprojekt syftar till att få en bättre insikt i de tekniska (geografiska) och även sociala faktorer kopplade till markbyte. Den tekniska delen av projektet innebär utveckling av ett verktyg för att 1) räkna avstånd mellan gårdscentrum och fält i hela Sverige, 2) identifiera bästa matchningar för markbyte mellan gårdar, och därmed minimera avstånd mellan gårdscentrum och fält, och 3) uppskatta potentiella besparingar av drivmedel och kostnader kopplade till markbyte.

Våra resultat visar att verktyget ger ett stabilt underlag som beslutstöd. Däremot behövs mer studier för att komma överens om det bästa sättet att implementera verktyget i Sverige, särskilt angående ägarskap, affärsmodell och utveckling av nya funktioner. Den teoretiska potentialen för markbyte mellan två gårdar är uppskattad till 12,4 %.

Den sociala delen av projektet undersökte lantbrukares attityder till markbyte. I semi-strukturerade intervjuer med lantbrukare, och seminarium med andra intressenter, undersökte vi hinder, förutsättningar, samt potential för implementering av verktyget. Våra resultat visar att verktyget var positivt mottaget men att det finns fler faktorer att ta hänsyn till t.ex. jordart, odlingsmetod och förtroende.

Abstract [en]

The number of farms in Sweden is decreasing while the size is increasing as most farms grow bigger in areal in order to remain competitive on the market. However, this situation set pressure on farmers looking to expand. It is rare for farmers to find available land close to their farm and therefore start to cultivate land further away. The extra distance has a cost, both for the farmers’ profitability and for the environment. Previous study looked at four particular farms focusing on the cost related to the harvest (cereal or forage). By simulating an exchange of land to closer ones, the cost for transport of the harvest was at least halved in the four cases. The study looked mostly at the technical aspect and included only the four cases.

Therefore, this project aims to have a broader perspective, both in term of geography and also by looking at the social factors related to land exchange. During the project, a tool has been developed to calculate on a national level the distance between each field and the farm cultivating it. The tool is also used to minimise the distance between field and farm by allowing fields to be exchanged between farmers. Moreover, the tool has been used to estimate the potential for diesel use and cost reduction related to land exchange. Using the tool as ground for discussion, semi-structured interviews have been performed with farmers to understand the hinders and driving forces for land exchange between each other. During these interviews, the potential for implementing the tool was also discussed.

The theoretical potential if limiting the exchange of land only between two parties at a time would be 12.4 %. Moreover, this number would decrease when considering the practical and social barriers such as the soil characteristics, the different cultivation methods (organic/conventional, no-till) and trust between farmers.

The development of an application for optimal land exchange will require not only a robust model for distance calculation and optimization of land exchange but also a well-developed and user-friendly interface. Depending on how the application will be used, by single farmers or by consultants and advisers, different versions of an application may be required.

The tool developed during the project has been positively received both by farmers during the interviews and also by other stakeholders during the concluding seminar. It gives a solid basis and acts as decision support tool. More is needed to agree on the best way to implement it in Sweden, in particular looking at the ownership, business model, and the development of new functions.

Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:43
Keywords
Energy efficiency, energy use, logistics, optimization, crop production, farm, agriculture, land exchange
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-42265 (URN)
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2024-03-15
Sindhöj, E., Tamm, K., Bryukhanov, A., Casimir, J., Uvarov, R. & Oblomkova, N. (2019). Slurry acidification as a tool to reduce ammonia emissions. Agricultural Machinery and Technologies, 13(5), 4-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slurry acidification as a tool to reduce ammonia emissions
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2019 (English)In: Agricultural Machinery and Technologies, ISSN 2618-6748, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 4-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Moscow: , 2019
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52929 (URN)10.22314/2073-7599-2019-13-5-4-10 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-04-06 Created: 2021-04-06 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Casimir, J., Jamieson, M., Elmquist, H., Persson, I. & Bergman, N. (2018). Färdplan för effektivisering och egenförsörjning av energi i lantbruket.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Färdplan för effektivisering och egenförsörjning av energi i lantbruket
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Roadmap for the efficiency and self-sufficiency of energy in agriculture
Abstract [en]

The greenhouse gas emissions connected to energy use in the Swedish agriculture (excluding greenhouse cultures) represents 0,6 Mton CO2eq which is about 4% of the agriculture greenhouse gas emission in Sweden (Jordbruksverket, 2018). The “All Party Committee for environmental objectives” (miljömålsberedning) suggested that by 2045 Sweden should has a zero-net-emission of greenhouse gases. The parliament (Riksdag) adopted this political framework for climate issues which entered into force the 1st of January 2018. To reach this ambitious goal, all sectors including agriculture must undertake measures.

The project developed a roadmap in the form of a list of measures leading the Swedish agriculture towards a sustainable status in line with the Swedish Environmental Goals. This roadmap was developed using a backcasting methodology. It means that first the goals were set and then the measures needed to move from the present status to the goals were developed. Based on political goals as well sustainability principles, a vision of the future for Swedish agriculture has been developed. The vision is:

In the future, agriculture is energy effective, independent from fossil resources, deliver energy to the society and is profitable. Agricultural enterprises have access to knowledge, competences, and decision support. Collaboration within the agricultural sector as well as with other sectors is comprehensive for energy.

To analyse the current situation, four studies were implemented within the project: (i) a survey of farmers view and interest, (ii) a survey of agrarian education, (iii) identification of bottlenecks with research and development (R&D), and (iv) an analysis of how relevant tools for energy are communicated. A selection of observation positive for the energy and climate questions are as follow: more agricultural enterprises have solar cells today than three years ago, 25% of the respondents have attend an eco-driving course, large farms have done most energy surveys and, investment in fossil free energy is seen as positive for both enterprise and the environment. Negative observations are that farmers miss a long-term regulation for energy production and feel a lack of knowledge about energy efficiency and production. Only 8% of the respondents uses high blends biofuels. In addition, respondents have expressed a lack of collaboration and inquire for a joint communication for R&D results concerning energy efficiency and production. In the agrarian education the interest in energy efficiency and production is low.

A range of measures contributing to reach the vision were suggested. These measures vary between different communication strategies, improved advisory services and need for regulatory simplification to minimize the hassle with permissions and administration. Simple and accessible key figures as well as better statistics would make it easier to follow the different energy flows. It is up to decision-making authorities, advisory organisations, institutions of higher education, agricultural organisations and agriculture themselves to implement these measures.

The greenhouse gas emissions connected to energy use in the Swedish agriculture (excluding greenhouse cultures) represents 0,6 Mton CO2eq which is about 4% of the agriculture greenhouse gas emission in Sweden (Jordbruksverket, 2018). The “All Party Committee for environmental objectives” (miljömålsberedning) suggested that by 2045 Sweden should has a zero-net-emission of greenhouse gases. The parliament (Riksdag) adopted this political framework for climate issues which entered into force the 1st of January 2018. To reach this ambitious goal, all sectors including agriculture must undertake measures.

The project developed a roadmap in the form of a list of measures leading the Swedish agriculture towards a sustainable status in line with the Swedish Environmental Goals. This roadmap was developed using a backcasting methodology. It means that first the goals were set and then the measures needed to move from the present status to the goals were developed. Based on political goals as well sustainability principles, a vision of the future for Swedish agriculture has been developed. The vision is:

In the future, agriculture is energy effective, independent from fossil resources, deliver energy to the society and is profitable. Agricultural enterprises have access to knowledge, competences, and decision support. Collaboration within the agricultural sector as well as with other sectors is comprehensive for energy.

To analyse the current situation, four studies were implemented within the project: (i) a survey of farmers view and interest, (ii) a survey of agrarian education, (iii) identification of bottlenecks with research and development (R&D), and (iv) an analysis of how relevant tools for energy are communicated. A selection of observation positive for the energy and climate questions are as follow: more agricultural enterprises have solar cells today than three years ago, 25% of the respondents have attend an eco-driving course, large farms have done most energy surveys and, investment in fossil free energy is seen as positive for both enterprise and the environment. Negative observations are that farmers miss a long-term regulation for energy production and feel a lack of knowledge about energy efficiency and production. Only 8% of the respondents uses high blends biofuels. In addition, respondents have expressed a lack of collaboration and inquire for a joint communication for R&D results concerning energy efficiency and production. In the agrarian education the interest in energy efficiency and production is low.

A range of measures contributing to reach the vision were suggested. These measures vary between different communication strategies, improved advisory services and need for regulatory simplification to minimize the hassle with permissions and administration. Simple and accessible key figures as well as better statistics would make it easier to follow the different energy flows. It is up to decision-making authorities, advisory organisations, institutions of higher education, agricultural organisations and agriculture themselves to implement these measures.

Publisher
p. 92
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:60
Keywords
Jordbruk, energi, effektivisering, förnybar, färdplan, bioenergi, egenförsöjning
National Category
Renewable Bioenergy Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-37093 (URN)978-91-88907-04-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Board of Agriculture, 2016-5728
Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-18 Last updated: 2021-06-21Bibliographically approved
Casimir, J., Östlund, J., Holtz, E., Hondo, H., Eliasson, L. & Moore, S. (2018). Småskalighet som ett medel för att bana väg för framtidens livsmedel?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Småskalighet som ett medel för att bana väg för framtidens livsmedel?
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The food value chain system in Sweden is well established making it hard for small companies to develop new products and even harder to create new food supply systems Obstacles could lay at the beginning of the chain (food production or processing), at the end (marketing, consumer) or could even be related to the legislative regulation framing the food supply chain. Smaller actors often lack resources and networks to develop their sector. However, their degree of creativity, innovativeness, and engagement is high, and their energy is needed in the development of new sustainable food value chains.

The aim of this project was to develop and apply a methodology for evaluating food value chains, focusing on profitable small-scale production systems in Sweden that show potential for fast development of new products that quickly reach the market. The work also included identifying Swedish raw food materials with growth potential and to identify how they could come into greater demand. Ten food value chains with high development potential in Sweden and for export were mapped and the main bottlenecks briefly described. Three food chains where selected based on a potential-difficulty-benefit matrix. The three selected food value chains were: (i) Hops, (ii) Swedish forest berries, and (iii) Land-based fish farming. These three food value chains where further studied looking at the whole value chain, from production to end consumer. Through literature review and contacts with relevant stakeholders (telephone interview, face-to-face interview, or workshop) the bottlenecks were clarified and potential solutions for increased demand where identified.

Swedish hops production is carried out by passionate and engaged smaller actors, mostly on a hobby level, and the hops is used as an ingredient for beer. Germany and the USA produce about 75% of the worldwide production These hops varieties are not adapted to the Swedish climate and therefore result in a low volume and poor quality. However, domestic varieties have been grown in the past giving better yield under Swedish climate conditions. More work is needed to characterize the quality of Swedish hops. At the present time, knowledge about the characteristics of Swedish hops is low, explaining the lack of interest from brewers. In Sweden most hops are harvested by hand, making it nearly impossible to be profitable on the market. The mechanization of the harvesting step is necessary to move Swedish hops from a hobby to a commercial activity. No solutions are available on the Swedish market, RISE together with SLU is looking to develop a hops harvester fulfilling Swedish and EU regulations and adapted to small scale cultivation. At the end of the value chain, innovative products could increase the need for Swedish hops, for example by developing beers brewed with fresh hops. Moreover, hops have antiseptic characteristics and could potentially be used in other food products than beer.

Only about four percent of the berries that are produced by the Swedish forests every year are picked. The largest volumes picked are for bilberry (Swedish: blåbär), lingonberry, and cloudberry and most of them are washed and frozen in Sweden. Processing of berries, however, has to a large extent moved out of the country while the products produced for the Swedish market are quite traditional, low-processed foods such as jams, juices and dessert soups. The majority of the Swedish berries mainly bilberries due to their nutritional content are exported and are further processed into value added powders or extracts in Asia and Europe. In Sweden this kind of value chain is under developed largely due to knowledge barriers and to the currently very traditional market. However, there is a great consumer interest in berries and they have a perceived healthiness also in Sweden. Consumers are also increasingly aware of the origin of berries used as ingredients in products such as jams, purees and juice, as well as in health food products. To fill this gap between consumer interest/demand and raw materials available new businesses can be developed. To facilitate such development there is a need for knowledge generation and transfer along the whole value chain (picking, processing, product development and consumer studies), which can be generated by starting up new innovation and research projects. It is also of importance to facilitate networking, for example in the ‘berry network’ (coordinated by RISE), as the creation of a new value chain will require different businesses to cooperate. Also, product development projects will need support for testing, pilot production, and possibly in finding investment funding for new equipment.

Land-based fish farming is small in comparison to traditional fish farming in Sweden, but several actors see a great potential in this system which has a lower impact on the environment compared to conventional fish farms. For instance, the Swedish farmer federation (LRF) has invested in a land-based fish farm recently. As in other EU-countries, the number of active farms in Sweden is decreasing and some see the potential to recycle unused animal stables into fish farms. A major bottleneck for land-based fish farming is current legislation as it is based on conventional fish farming and therefore does not consider the environmental benefits of land-based systems. Knowledge should be spread to relevant authorities and policy makers to open a dialog and facilitate the development of a relevant regulatory framework. Regarding the production phase, access to sustainably produced feed and technical competence are lacking. Moreover, as the technology is costly learning through trial and error would not be recommended. A testbed dedicated to land-based fish farming could support companies who wish to try modifications to their system. Furthermore, smaller producers have difficulties in finding processing solutions for their products; e.g. slaughterhouses and conditioning. Two potential solutions would be to develop a land-based fish farm cooperative and/or mobile systems that could take care of smaller productions. Finally, the competition on the market is tough as land-based fishes are competing with large-scale conventional fish farms from Norway and Asia. To overcome this bottleneck, the sector could develop its own certification as well as increasing the consumers awareness and knowledge.

Some conclusions could be applied to all the studied food chains. For instance, each value chain can be seen as a puzzle with many pieces. In order to develop new food value chains many separate pieces need to fall into place. Therefore, it is necessary to increase collaboration between stakeholders but also to have a stakeholder driven coordination of this collaboration. The stakeholders within the developing value chains often do not have all the resources to carry out this task, especially if they are small businesses. The development of cooperatives also seems to be a solution to overcome bottlenecks in the studied food chains. Likewise, logistics in the developing value chains have a great margin for improvement. Furthermore, this project focused on value chains where food commodities are the end product but investigating the potential for non-food uses would also be of interest.

The method used in this project can be replicated to other value chains with potential of development. It would help the users to get a holistic view of the current bottlenecks and facilitate contact between stakeholders. The list of bottlenecks can be followed up and used as an indicator to evaluate if the value chain in moving forward.

Abstract [sv]

Svensk livsmedelsproduktion är väl etablerad och gör det svårt för små företag att utveckla nya produkter och ännu hårdare att skapa nya livsmedelsvärdekedjor. Flaskhalsar kan uppstå i början av värdekedjan (primärled och förädlingsprocesser), i andra änden (marknad, konsumenter), eller kan relateras till regelverk som genomsyrar hela kedjan. Små aktörer saknar ofta resurser och nätverk att utveckla sitt område. De har emellertid hög kreativitet, stor innovationsrikedom och ett stort engagemang, vilket krävs för att utveckla hållbara livsmedelsvärdekedjor.

Projektets mål var att utveckla och applicera en metodik för att utvärdera livsmedelsvärdekedjor med fokus på lönsamhet för svensk, småskalig produktion samt att bidra till en ökad utvecklingstakt. Arbetet innebar även att identifiera livsmedelsråvaror med potential för tillväxt och att identifiera hur dess efterfrågan kan ökas. Projektet kartlade livsmedelsvärdekedjor med hög utvecklingspotential inom Sverige och för export. Tio livsmedelsvärdekedjor identifierades och de huvudsakliga flaskhalsarna i kedjan beskrevs översiktligt. Tre livsmedelsvärdekedjor valdes ut baserat på en potential-svårighets-möjlighets-matris. De valda livsmedelskedjorna var: (i) Humle, (ii) Svenska skogsbär, och (iii) Landbaserad fiskodling. Dessa tre livsmedelsvärdekedjor studerades i detalj med hela värdekedjan inkluderad, från produktion till slutkonsument. Genom litteraturstudier och kontakt med relevanta aktörer (telefonintervjuer, face-to-face-intervjuer eller workshop) bekräftades flaskhalsarna och möjliga lösningar för ökad efterfrågan identifierades.

Svensk humleproduktion bedrivs med stor passion och stort engagemang av små aktörer, mestadels på hobbynivå. Humlen produceras för att användas som ingrediens i öl. Tyskland och USA står för ca 75 % av världens humleproduktion. Många av dessa humlesorter är inte anpassade för svenskt klimat, vilket resulterar i låga skördevolymer och otillräcklig kvalitet. Inhemska sorter som traditionellt odlats i Sverige ger bättre skördenivåer i svenska klimatförhållanden och tidig mognad. Det finns en efterfrågan på svensk humle hos bryggerier, men på grund av att kvaliteten hos de svenska sorterna är ojämn och bristfälligt karakteriserad med avseende på aromer och beska, vill bryggerierna inte köpa råvaran. I Sverige skördas den mesta humlen för hand, ett tidsödande arbete som gör det i princip omöjligt att uppnå lönsamhet i produktionen. En mekanisering av skörden är nödvändig för att svensk humleproduktion ska ta steget från hobby till kommersiell produktion. Inga kommersiella lösningar finns ännu tillgängliga, RISE kommer i samarbete med SLU utveckla en skördemaskin som uppfyller EU-standard och är anpassad för småskalig humleodling. Ett nytänkande i värdekedjans senare del, såsom att utnyttja humlens aromatiska egenskaper i sitt färska tillstånd, skulle kunna öka efterfrågan på svensk humle. Humle har dessutom antiseptiska egenskaper som skulle kunna utnyttjas för fler produkter än öl.

Endast fyra procent av bären som växer i svenska skogar plockas varje år. Till de bär som plockas mest hör blåbär, lingon och hjortron. De flesta rensas och fryses ner i Sverige. Förädling av bären har däremot flyttat utomlands och de produkter som tillverkas i Sverige är traditionella, lågprocessade sylter, juicer och krämer. Majoriteten av svenska bär mestadels blåbär för sitt nutritionella värde, exporteras och förädlas vidare till pulver eller extrakt i Asien och Europa. Den typen av värdekedja har inte etablerats i Sverige på grund av bristande kunskap samt en än så länge traditionell marknad. Dock finns ett stort konsumentintresse i bär då de även här anses ha positiva hälsoeffekter. Konsumenter är även mer medvetna om bärens ursprung i produkter som sylt, puré och juice samt kosttillskott. Intresset och efterfrågan av bär som råvara kan bemötas med nya affärsmöjligheter. Denna utveckling skulle underlättas genom att generera och sprida kunskap genom hela värdekedjan (plockning, förädling, produktutveckling och konsumenter), och kan genereras med hjälp av nya innovationer och forskningsprojekt. Det är också viktigt att stödja nätverkande, som i till exempel ”Bärnätverket” (koordinerat av RISE), eftersom nya värdekedjor kräver nya samarbeten i affärsutvecklingen. Även produktutvecklingen behöver stöd i form av produktion i pilotskala och möjligen investeringsstöd för ny utrustning.

Landbaserad fiskodling är liten i jämförelse med traditionell odling av fisk i Sverige, men flera aktörer ser stor potential med landbaserade system som generellt ger lägre miljöpåverkan än fiskodlingar i sjöar och hav. Exempelvis Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund (LRF) har nyligen investerat i en landbaserad fiskodling. Likt andra EU-medlemsländer har antalet aktiva lantbruksföretag i Sverige minskat, varav några ser en möjlighet att konvertera övergivna djurstallar till bassänger för fiskodling. Den huvudsakliga flaskhalsen i utvecklingen av landbaserad fiskodling består i det regelverk som måste följas, men som utgår från traditionell fiskodling. Det innebär att regelverket inte tar hänsyn till de miljöfördelar som ses med landbaserad fiskodling. Det behövs en öppen dialog och kunskap måste spridas till berörda makthavare och beslutsfattare för att anpassa regelverket. I produktionsfasen finns behov av ett miljömässigt hållbart foder samt ökad teknisk kunskap. Tekniken är kostsam vilket gör det svårt att lära sig genom misslyckade försök till fiskodling i pilotskala. En testbädd anpassad för landbaserad fiskodling kan stödja företag som vill utveckla eller förändra sitt system. Små producenter har svårt att hitta praktiska lösningar för deras produktion, t.ex. vad gäller slakt och filétering. Två möjliga lösningar är att bilda ett kooperativ och/eller mobila system som riktar sig till små producenter. Konkurrensen på marknaden är hård eftersom landbaserad fisk konkurrerar med storskaliga fiskodlingar i Norge och Asien. Problemet kan lösas med en särskild märkning och certifiering samt genom att öka konsumenternas medvetenhet och kunskap.

Några av dessa lösningar kan användas till samtliga studerade livsmedelsvärdekedjor. Värdekedjorna kan ses som ett pussel med många bitar där alla bitar måste falla på rätt plats för att en utveckling ska ske. Därför är det nödvändigt att öka samarbetet mellan aktörer, men också att ha en drivande aktör som koordinerar samarbetet. Aktörerna inom värdekedjan har ofta inte kapacitet att driva det arbetet, särskilt inte små aktörer. Kooperativ ser ut att vara en möjlig lösning för de studerade livsmedelsvärdekedjorna. Likaså kan logistiken i värdekedjorna förbättras. Det här projektet fokuserade på värdekedjor där slutprodukten utgörs av ett livsmedel, men att undersöka möjligheten att skapa andra typer av produkter kan vara värdefullt.

Metodiken som användes i det här projektet kan användas för andra värdekedjor med potential att utvecklas. Det skulle hjälpa aktörerna att få en tydlig bild över förekommande flaskhalsar och underlätta kontakten mellan aktörer. Listan över flaskhalsar kan följas upp och användas som indikator för att utvärdera om utvecklingen av värdekedjan går åt rätt håll.

Publisher
p. 74
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:29
Keywords
new food chains, hops, wild berries, land-based fish farming, bottleneck, solution
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science Food Science Horticulture Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33931 (URN)978-91-88695-66-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-12 Created: 2018-06-12 Last updated: 2024-05-17Bibliographically approved
(2017). Possibilities and bottlenecks for implementing slurry acidification techniques in the Baltic Sea Region.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibilities and bottlenecks for implementing slurry acidification techniques in the Baltic Sea Region
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Möjligheter och begränsningar att införa teknik för surgörning av flytgödsel i Östersjöregionen
Abstract [en]

This report: 1) describes those slurry acidification techniques (SATs) that are commercially available today in Denmark including In-house, In-storage and In-field SATs, and 2) summarizes expert judgements on how these SATs could be implemented in each country in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Special focus on bottlenecks for implementing SATs with existing manure management systems was considered.

Data from Eurostat and national statistics show that a large portion of manure in each country is handled as slurry and all the national experts considered implementing SATs as relevant for their respective countries.

The In-field SATs were considered the most applicable SATs for implementation in the BSR. They are flexible and mobile and in general have the lowest acid consumption. If investments in In-field SATs are done by agricultural contractors or farmer cooperation’s, then acidification techniques will also be available to smaller farms.

The In-storage SATs that acidify slurry just before spreading were ranked second of interest in most countries. Mobile equipment is ideal for contractors and co-operations and therefore each unit could potentially treat a lot of slurry. Another advantage is that once the slurry is acidified, any available spreading equipment can be used. The major drawback is that extra storage capacity is needed during acidification so the foaming will not overflow. Most farmers do not have this extra storage capacity, so if storages are full, some slurry would have to be spread untreated before the rest of the tank could be acidified.

The stationary In-house SAT was thought to be of less interest in most countries, since it is perhaps the hardest SAT to implement into existing manure handling systems. They are best suited for new animal houses so the SAT can be integrated into the manure handling system from the start. Installing them in existing animal houses would, in many cases, probably require re-construction of slurry channels. Also, in some countries like Estonia and Sweden, flushing systems inside the barn are currently not allowed due to regulations. Another aspect is that In-house SATs are permanent installations which use more acid than In-field and In-storage SATs. However, In-house SATs have the best potential for reducing ammonia emissions so this might be of interest for farms in environmentally sensitive areas.

Compared to In-house, there was greater interest in the In-storage SAT that acidifies all slurry sent to the storage, since this could likely more easy to implement into existing manure handling systems. It is still a stationary system for a specific farm, but installation would be simpler and emissions would be lower from both storage and spreading.

In general, there is a good potential to implement currently available SATs into existing manure handling systems in BSR countries and most identified bottle-necks could be dealt with.

Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport innehåller dels beskrivningar av olika tekniker för surgöring av gödsel, I-stall, I -lager och I -fält, som idag är kommersiellt tillgängliga i Danmark, dels en sammanfattning av expertbedömningar av hur dessa tekniker kan imple-menteras i respektive land i Östersjöområdet. Vid bedömningarna har experterna beaktat de hinder som kan finnas för att börja använda surgörningstekniken med befintliga gödselhanteringssystem.

Uppgifter från Eurostat och nationell statistik visar att en stor del av stallgödseln i varje land hanteras som flytgödsel. Alla nationella experter ansåg att införandet av surgörningsteknik är relevant i respektive land.

Tekniker för surgörning I-fält betraktades som de mest intressanta för länderna runt Östersjön. De är både flexibla och mobila och har generellt det lägsta behovet av syra. Om investeringar i I-fält-teknik görs av maskinstationer eller sker genom maskinsamverkan mellan lantbrukare, kan surningstekniken även finnas tillgänglig för mindre gårdar.

Teknikerna för I-lager, där gödseln surgörs strax innan spridning, rankades i de flesta länder som näst intressantast. Den mobila utrustningen är idealisk för entreprenörer och vid maskinsamverkan och därför har varje enhet potential att behandla en stor mängd gödsel. En annan fördel är att när väl gödseln surgjorts kan vilken spridningsutrustning som helst användas. Den största nackdelen är att extra lagringskapacitet behövs för att kunna rymma det skum som bildas under försurningen. På de flesta djurgårdar finns inte denna extra lagringskapacitet, så om alla gödselbehållare är fulla behöver en del gödsel spridas obehandlad för att få tillräckligt utrymme innan start av surgörningen.

Den stationära surgörningstekniken I-stall bedömdes i de flesta länder vara mindre intressant, eftersom den kanske är svårast att implementera i befintliga gödselhanteringssystem. Den passar bäst vid nybyggnation, där tekniken kan integreras i gödselhanteringssystemet redan från början. Installation i befintliga stallar skulle i många fall förmodligen kräva ombyggnad av gödselrännor och kulvertar. I vissa länder, t.ex. Estland och Sverige, är system med returspolning av gödsel inne i stall enligt nuvarande bestämmelser inte tillåtna. En annan aspekt är att teknik för surgörning I-stall är en permanent installation som också kräver mer syra än teknikerna I-fält och I-lager. Surgörning I-stall har dock den bästa potentialen för att minska ammoniakutsläpp, vilket gör att den kan vara intressant för gårdar i miljökänsliga områden.

Jämfört med I-stall var det större intresse för den I-lager-teknik som surgör all gödsel utgående från stallet, innan den pumpas vidare till gödsellagret, eftersom denna teknik sannolikt är lättare att integrera i befintliga gödselhanteringssystem. Även om detta fortfarande är ett stationärt system för en specifik gård, skulle installationen bli enklare och utsläppen vara totalt lägre under lagring och vid spridning än vid surgörning strax innan spridning. Det senare ger endast effekt under spridningen.

Sammanfattningsvis finns det i länderna runt Östersjön en god potential att börja använda de nu tillgängliga surgörningsteknikerna i befintliga gödselhanterings-system, och de flesta flaskhalsar som identifierats är möjliga att hantera.

Publisher
p. 104
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2017:47
Keywords
Slurry, Acidification, Technology, Implementation, Flytgödsel, Surgörning, Teknik, Implementering
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33108 (URN)978-91-88695-11-6 (ISBN)
Projects
Baltic Slurry Acidification
Funder
Interreg Baltic Sea Region
Available from: 2018-01-18 Created: 2018-01-18 Last updated: 2024-02-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9851-4170

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