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Willstrand, O., Pushp, M., Ingason, H. & Brandell, D. (2024). Uncertainties in the use of oxygen consumption calorimetry for heat release measurements in lithium-ion battery fires. Fire safety journal, 143, Article ID 104078.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uncertainties in the use of oxygen consumption calorimetry for heat release measurements in lithium-ion battery fires
2024 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 143, article id 104078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate measurement of the heat release from a battery fire is vital for risk management, product development and construction of accurate models. Oxygen consumption calorimetry is the most common method for heat release measurements in experimental fire tests. The strength of the method is that it can be applied to unknown compositions of fuel with sufficient accuracy. Despite that this method is used to estimate heat release from battery fires, the method is subject to discussion. In this work, the method is studied in-depth, and potential errors are structured and quantified. Uncertainties associated with self-generated oxygen and internal heat generation, total gas release from the battery and impact on the heat release calculations, as well as the assumed E-factor (i.e., heat release per unit mass of oxygen consumed), are thoroughly discussed. For a Li-ion battery fire, it is concluded that oxygen consumption calorimetry will exclude internal heat generation and underestimate the total heat released from the external flaming fire by up to 10 %. In addition, high rate of combustion reactions can result in that the measured peak heat release rate is underestimated much more, up to 100 %. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Calorimeters; Calorimetry; Carbon dioxide; Enthalpy; Fires; Heat generation; Ions; Lithium compounds; Oxygen; Risk assessment; Risk management; Uncertainty analysis; Carbon dioxide generation calorimetries; Fire tests; Heat release; Heat release rate; Oxygen consumption calorimetry; Release measurements; Release rate; Thermal runaways; Total heat released; Uncertainty; Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-70010 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.104078 (DOI)2-s2.0-85181765133 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-00064Swedish Energy Agency, 51787-1
Note

This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project no. 51787-1). Partners within the project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Northvolt, Scania, and Uppsala University. We also acknowledge support from Batteries Sweden (grant no. Vinnova-2019-00064), and STandUP for Energy.

Available from: 2024-01-16 Created: 2024-01-16 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Hynynen, J., Quant, M., Willstrand, O. & Mallin, T. (2023). Analysis of combustion gases and fire water run-offs from passenger vehicle fires. In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: . Paper presented at Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of combustion gases and fire water run-offs from passenger vehicle fires
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of the transport sector has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. Fires in electric vehicles are reported almost daily in the media and social media channels. However, fires starting in an electric vehicle traction battery (i.e., lithium-ion battery) are rare. If the traction battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery pack in an electric vehicle is generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This results in the use of large amounts of water, that potentially could carry pollutants into the environment. In this work, the analysis of extinguishing water from passenger vehicle fires are reported. Three large-scale vehicle fire tests were performed, the vehicles used were both conventional petrol fuelled and battery electric. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås and the test setup allowed analysis of both combustion gases and extinguishing water. Results show that all analysed extinguishing water was highly contaminated. Additionally, the ecotoxicity analysis of the extinguishing water showed that the extinguishing water was highly toxic towards the tested aquatic species, independent of the traction energy of the vehicle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2023
Keywords
electric vehicle, large-scale fire test, extinguishing water, ecotoxicity
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71492 (URN)
Conference
Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023
Note

This work was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (grant no. 48193-2). 

Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved
Hynynen, J., Willstrand, O., Blomqvist, P. & Andersson, P. (2023). Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests. Fire safety journal, 139, Article ID 103829.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests
2023 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 139, article id 103829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the media. In particular, the toxic gases released upon combustion of electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has been a major concern. In this study, the results of six large-scale vehicle fire tests are presented including three electric vehicles, two internal combustion engine vehicles, and one electric vehicle with the battery pack removed. Additionally, separate battery component tests were performed. In two of the vehicle fire tests a sprinkler system was used to assess the effect of water application on the combustion gases. Furthermore, calculations of the heat release rate, peak heat release rate and total heat release were performed, as well as chemical analysis of gas and soot. Peak heat release rate and total heat release were affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly by the type of powertrain. Regarding the combustion gases, hydrogen fluoride represented the largest difference between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, battery specific metals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt and lithium were found in higher concentrations in the electric vehicle tests than in the internal combustion vehicle tests, in which larger quantities of lead were found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Combustion gas, Electric vehicle, Heat release rate, Large-scale fire test, Lithium-ion battery, Combustion, Enthalpy, Fires, Fluorine compounds, Gases, Internal combustion engines, Fire tests, Heat release, Internal combustion engine vehicles, Large scale fire tests, Large-scales, Peak heat release rates, Release rate, Vehicle fires, Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64934 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2023.103829 (DOI)2-s2.0-85160430610 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Hynynen, J.; Research Institutes of Sweden RISE, Brinellgatan 4, Sweden; email: jonna.hynynen@ri.se; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 48193-1, 48193-2; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency [grant no. 48193-1, 48193-2].

Available from: 2023-06-12 Created: 2023-06-12 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved
Quant, M., Willstrand, O., Mallin, T. & Hynynen, J. (2023). Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Fire-Extinguishing Water from Large-Scale Battery and Battery Electric Vehicle Fire Tests. Environmental Science and Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Fire-Extinguishing Water from Large-Scale Battery and Battery Electric Vehicle Fire Tests
2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Electrified transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns, for example, the flammable formulations used in lithium-ion batteries. Fires in traction batteries can be difficult to extinguish because the battery cells are well protected and hard to reach. To control the fire, firefighters must prolong the application of extinguishing media. In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicles and one battery pack fire test were analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants, including particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot content. Additionally, the acute toxicity of the collected extinguishing water on three aquatic species was determined. The vehicles used in the fire tests were both conventional petrol-fueled and battery electric. For all of the tests, the analysis of the extinguishing water showed high toxicity toward the tested aquatic species. Several metals and ions were found in concentrations above the corresponding surface water guideline values. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances were detected in concentrations ranging between 200 and 1400 ng L–1. Flushing the battery increased the concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to 4700 ng L–1. Extinguishing water from the battery electric vehicle and the battery pack contained a higher concentration of nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese, and fluoride compared with the water samples analyzed from the conventional vehicle.

Keywords
battery electric vehicle, lithium-ion battery, fire test, extinguishing water, ecotoxicity
National Category
Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry Materials Chemistry Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64247 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.2c08581 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 48193-2
Note

Funding: Energimyndigheten 48193-2

Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-06-02Bibliographically approved
Hynynen, J., Kumlin, H. & Willstrand, O. (2023). Electric Trucks – Fire Safety Aspects. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric Trucks – Fire Safety Aspects
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study was performed by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden on behalf of Volvo Trucks. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden was requested to conduct a study regarding the differences between fires in conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) trucks and electric trucks. A set of guiding questions (see section Aim) were given by Volvo Trucks and in this report these questions have been answered. The questions have been answered by performing literature searches and through previous knowledge of RISE. However, for some questions, due to scarcity of data on electric truck fires, knowledge regarding electric passenger cars has been used. In addition, contact has been made with fire and rescue services around the world (Australia, UK, USA, Sweden and Finland) to collect their views on management of fires in electric vehicles (EVs). The main conclusions are: • Data on electric truck fires are scarce due to the low number of vehicles as well as the low number of fire incidents. Available data show that battery electric passenger vehicle fires are less common than ICE vehicle fires, but that the risks are different. The main differences are that battery fires tends to be harder to extinguish than fires in ICE vehicles and that there is a risk of accumulation of flammable gases, especially in enclosed spaces, upon thermal runaway. • Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) type cells, in comparison with nickel-based type cells (such as lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA)), have a higher thermal runaway onset temperature, a slower temperature increase rate, a lower maximum temperature as well as a lower gas production in total amount. However, the specific total gas production (L Ah-1) can sometimes be higher for LFP-type cells and depends on the state of charge and on the amount of electrolyte in the cell. However, the safety of a battery pack in a vehicle is determined by several factors such as preventive measures aimed at reducing the occurrence of fires (safe design). For example, by early detection and pro-active mitigation using the battery management system and thermal management system and by limiting the thermal propagation in the battery pack, reducing the extent of damage. • Fires in enclosed spaces, such as in underground parking garages and tunnels, generally imply a higher risk for firefighters due to the trapped smoke, decreased visibility and longer access routes than in open structures. Risk reduction measures for battery fires should focus on early detection of harmful events, reducing thermal propagation in the battery pack and on limiting the extent of fire spread. The severity of the consequences of vehicle fires (no matter if is an EV or an ICEV) in enclosed spaces could be reduced using suppression systems, such as a water sprinkler system, to hinder fire spread between vehicles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2023. p. 21
Keywords
Electric truck, fire safety, vehicle fire, electrical safety, enclosed space
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67757 (URN)
Note

Projektet är finansierat av Volvo Trucks.

Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, O., Quant, M., Rasmussen, M., Willstrand, O. & Hynynen, J. (2023). Guidelines for the fire protection of battery energy storage systems.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guidelines for the fire protection of battery energy storage systems
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy storage is essential for enhancing the stability, efficiency and sustainability of the modern energy supply chain. It can help reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and increase the use and market penetration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power, which are intermittent and variable. The most common technology for short storage times (minutes to days) is electrochemical energy storage, and more specifically lithium-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS). In line with the EU ambition for more sustainable electric vehicle batteries, it is likely that second life applications and repurposing of electric vehicle batteries will increase. One of the main challenges for the deployment of BESS is the fire safety of lithium-ion batteries. Today, there is a lack of national guidelines in Sweden for how to design a BESS in terms of fire safety, which causes uncertainty. Without national guidelines, each municipality and local fire and rescue service must develop their own advice, which may result in inconsistent and costly solutions with a varying degree of fire protection. The aim of this study was to produce national guidelines for the fire protection of BESS. The guidelines were produced by literature searches, review of relevant laws, regulations and standards, review of international guidelines, workshops, information retrieval from project partners and through studying lessons learnt from previous incidents. The produced guidelines (found in Appendix C, in Swedish) are formed around three application categories, based on the type of application and user, which reflect the size of the BESS. For the first category, BESS for single-family home use, guidance is given for separated placement of BESS, remote fire alarm, and separated ventilation. For the second category, BESS for multi-dwelling blocks or businesses, recommendations regarding placement, detection and ventilation are increased. It is also advised to have an installation that allows the fire and rescue services to ventilate fire gases without opening doors and that emergency response plans are produced. For the third category, BESS for large-scale commercial applications and mobile BESS, some further requirements are introduced. They include risk analysis, separate building and fire cell demands, as well as recommendations for CCTV and gas monitoring as well as fire hose connection. The guidelines assume that current national laws and building regulations are complied with. Additionally, insurance companies may have their own guidance which should be checked before installation. The guidelines produced in this project should thus be used as a supporting tool or when an increased level of protection is sought. The guidelines only address BESS with lithium-ion batteries. It was not included in the work to evaluate whether special requirements should apply for reused or remanufactured batteries (second-life).

Publisher
p. 68
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:117
Keywords
lithium-ion, battery, battery energy storage system, fire safety, explosion, guideline
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68770 (URN)978-91-89896-04-8 (ISBN)
Note

This project was coordinated by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. We gratefully acknowledge FORMAS – a Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development for funding through grant no. 2022-02015. We would also like to thank our project partners: Polarium Energy Solutions AB, Vattenfall AB and the reference group: Bengt Dahlgren, Brandskyddsföreningen, Brandsskyddslaget, Länsförsäkringar, Räddningstjänsten Luleå, Räddningstjänst Storgöteborg, Räddningstjänsten Syd, Storstockholms brandförsvar, Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut FOI, Utkiken and Volvo Energy.

Available from: 2024-01-05 Created: 2024-01-05 Last updated: 2024-01-05Bibliographically approved
Willstrand, O., Pushp, M., Andersson, P. & Brandell, D. (2023). Impact of different Li-ion cell test conditions on thermal runaway characteristics and gas release measurements. Journal of Energy Storage, 68, Article ID 107785.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of different Li-ion cell test conditions on thermal runaway characteristics and gas release measurements
2023 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 68, article id 107785Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries requires further efforts in safety testing and evaluation. It is of utmost importance that the effects of different test conditions are understood, particularly for validation of computer models. While plenty of data from thermal runaway tests are available in literature, few are from large test series. The missing systematic approach to evaluate the impact of different test conditions implies uncertainty when comparing test results. In addition, the fast pace in cell development, including an increasing utilization of larger cells, necessitate the validation of previously published results. This work presents thermal runaway data from 37 tests on one type of large format prismatic lithium-ion cell (157 Ah). The tests are conducted in a closed pressure vessel with inert atmosphere as well as in an open setup below an exhaust collector hood. Further, six different thermal runaway trigger methods are employed as well as four different states of charge. Emphasis is put on the gases produced, a key aspect for safety evaluation. The results are compared with literature data and a new modified method is proposed for calculating the characteristic venting rate in a closed pressure vessel. It is concluded that the trigger method affects the gas production rate, mass loss, and maximum temperature of the cell as much as its state of charge. The large cell format potentially impacts the specific total gas production and enhances the effects of different trigger methods, but has a small impact on other evaluation parameters. No significant differences were observed in the test results due to the different test setups, apart from differences due to potential combustion of the released gases in ambient atmosphere. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Gas composition, Gas production, Large format cell, State of charge, Test apparatus, Trigger methods, Battery management systems, Cells, Charging (batteries), Cytology, Gases, Ions, Lithium-ion batteries, Safety testing, Gas compositions, Gas productions, Large-format, Li-ion cells, States of charges, Test condition, Thermal runaways, Trigger method, Pressure vessels
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64929 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2023.107785 (DOI)2-s2.0-85160733022 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Willstrand, O.; RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Box 857, Sweden; email: ola.willstrand@ri.se; Funding details: Vinnova-2019-00064; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 51787-1; Funding details: Uppsala Universitet; Funding text 1: We thank David Raymand, Scania CV AB, and Tomas Verhallen and Seungbok Lee, Northvolt Labs, for input on the manuscript. This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project no. 51787-1 ). Partners within the project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Northvolt, Scania, and Uppsala University. We also acknowledge support from Batteries Sweden (grant no. Vinnova-2019-00064 ), and the StandUp for Energy consortium.; Funding text 2: We thank David Raymand, Scania CV AB, and Tomas Verhallen and Seungbok Lee, Northvolt Labs, for input on the manuscript. This work is part of a project funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (project no. 51787-1). Partners within the project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Northvolt, Scania, and Uppsala University. We also acknowledge support from Batteries Sweden (grant no. Vinnova-2019-00064), and the StandUp for Energy consortium.

Available from: 2023-06-12 Created: 2023-06-12 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Hynynen, J., Willstrand, O., Blomqvist, P. & Quant, M. (2023). Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sales of electric vehicles doubled in 2021 compared to the previous year and nearly 10% of the global new-car sales were electric in 2021. In the recent IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. For example, the use of rare metals and their sourcing are concerns from an environmental perspective, the capacity of the electricity network and the limited number of charging stations has been raised as an implementation barrier, and the new fire and explosion risks of batteries have caused concerns amongst users, property owners and rescue services alike society.Fires starting in the traction batteries (lithium-ion battery) are rare but if the battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery packs are generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This generally results in use of large amounts of water/fire extinguishing agent, which could carry pollutants into the environment.In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicle fires as well as from one battery pack fire has been investigated. Large-scale fire tests were performed with both conventional and electric vehicles. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås, which also allowed analysis of combustion gases for both inorganic and organic pollutants in the gas and liquid phase.It was found that nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese and hydrogen fluoride appeared in higher concentrations in the effluents from the battery electric vehicle and lithium-ion battery compared to from the internal combustion engine vehicle. However, lead was found in higher concentrations in the effluents from the internal combustion engine vehicle, both in the combustion gases as well as in the extinguishing water. Ecotoxicity analysis showed that extinguishing water from all vehicle and battery fires analysed in this work were toxic against the tested aquatic species.

Publisher
p. 53
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:22
Keywords
electric vehicle, battery, fire test, extinguishing water, ecotoxicity
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64249 (URN)978-91-89757-65-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 48193-2
Note

Funding: Energimyndigheten 48193-2

Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Willstrand, O., Gehandler, J. & Andersson, P. (Eds.). (2023). Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023. Paper presented at Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023
2023 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 7th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2023, held in Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, trucks and trains, or related infrastructure, such as car parks or vehicle transport at sea. Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced, with emphasis on high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas. Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge. FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators, rescue services and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different types of vehicles. In recognition of the fact that many of the fire problems faced by these vehicles are the same, the solutions to them can also be similar. In the proceedings you will find papers on vehicle fire development, bus fires, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, and car park fires. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, 2023. p. 249
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67533 (URN)978-91-89757-88-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 2023
Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Willstrand, O., Ramachandra, V., Evegren, F., Hägg, M., Ramne, B., Li, Z., . . . Lluis, E. J. (2022). Lätta elfartyg – Electric Light: Lightweight and electrically propelled Ro-Pax ships.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lätta elfartyg – Electric Light: Lightweight and electrically propelled Ro-Pax ships
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this project was to establish an innovative ship concept for a fully electric Ro-Pax ship, which makes use of new technology, especially in the area of electrical propulsion and energy storage. The project also included a risk assessment of the concept and identification of possible follow-up studies of critical design items. There is a growing demand for all types of shipping to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases and particles, and also NOx and SOx. Meeting IMO’s emissions objective by 2050 will require large efforts both for energy efficiency measures on existing ships and for new concepts for fossil-free ships. Electrical propulsion for small ships has been discussed for long and many installations are today operational. This project is an innovation project with participation from industrial partners contributing to the overall goal of sustainable shipping by proposing a ship concept for an electrically powered large Ro-Pax ship for shorter international voyage. The amount of electric energy estimated to be stored in batteries onboard is approximately 60 MWh. This is ten times more than the current largest marine battery installation. When it comes to fire safety, it is very important with a holistic approach, including integrity, ventilation, failure detection and fire suppression methods, etc., based on hazard identification. The battery fire safety concept developed in this project constitutes safety requirements guidelines for large ship battery installations and is one of the main results from the conducted risk analysis work. The idea of the presented concept is that it should be applicable for any electrically powered ship and that it could be used as starting point for discussions on IMO harmonized regulations for battery energy storage systems onboard ships. It can be concluded that a fully electric Ro-Pax ship operating on the route Gothenburg to Frederikshavn is a technically and commercially realistic alternative.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med detta projekt var att skapa ett innovativt fartygskoncept för ett helelektriskt Ro- Pax-fartyg, som använder sig av ny teknik, särskilt inom området elektrisk framdrivning och energilagring. Projektet inkluderade också en riskbedömning av konceptet och identifiering av möjliga uppföljningsstudier av kritiska designdelar. Kravet ökar på alla typer av sjöfart att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser och partiklar, samt även NOx och SOx. Att uppfylla IMO: s utsläppsmål 2050 kommer att kräva stora insatser avseende såväl energieffektivitetsåtgärder på befintliga fartyg som nya koncept för fossilfria fartyg. Elektrisk framdrivning för små fartyg har diskuterats länge och många installationer är idag i drift. Detta projekt är ett innovationsprojekt, med brett industriellt deltagande, som bidrar till det övergripande målet för hållbar sjöfart genom att föreslå ett fartygskoncept för ett eldrivet stort Ro-Pax-fartyg för kortare internationell resa. Mängden elektrisk energi som beräknas lagras i batterier ombord är cirka 60 MWh. Detta är tio gånger mer än den nuvarande största installationen av marina batterier. När det gäller brandsäkerhet är det mycket viktigt med ett holistiskt tillvägagångssätt, inklusive integritet, ventilation, feldetektering och brandbekämpningsmetoder etc. baserat på riskidentifiering. Konceptet med brandsäkerhet för batterier som utvecklats i detta projekt utgör riktlinjer för säkerhetskrav för stora fartygsbatteriinstallationer och är ett av huvudresultaten från det genomförda riskanalysarbetet. Tanken med det presenterade konceptet är att det ska vara tillämpligt för alla eldrivna fartyg och att det ska kunna användas som utgångspunkt för diskussioner om IMO-harmoniserade regler för batterilagringssystem ombord på fartyg. En viktig slutsats från projektet är att ett helelektriskt Ro-Pax-fartyg, som går på rutten Göteborg till Frederikshavn, är ett tekniskt och kommersiellt realistiskt alternativ.

Publisher
p. 87
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62021 (URN)
Note

An innovation project carried out within the Swedish Transport Administration’s industry program Sustainable Shipping, operated by Lighthouse.

Available from: 2022-12-23 Created: 2022-12-23 Last updated: 2023-06-02Bibliographically approved
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