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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Olsson, M., Löfkvist, K., Hagström, G., Eriksson, M., Albin, R., Löfström, C., . . . Nilsson, U. (2023). Ta vara på odlingens sidoströmmar – exemplet broccoli.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ta vara på odlingens sidoströmmar – exemplet broccoli
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2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Detta projekt har utforskat möjligheter att använda sidoströmmar; broccoliblad och stjälk, från broccoliproduktion till nya torkade livsmedelsingredienser. Skördehantering, skördeekonomi, lämpliga processtekniker, livscykelanalys, mikrobiologisk analys och riskbedömning, analys av näringsämnen och bioaktiva ämnen, sensorik och marknadsaspekter har undersökts.

Publisher
p. 4
Series
LTV-fakultetens faktablad ; 2023:9
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67400 (URN)
Note

Projektet är finansierat av Landsbygdsnätverket, EIP-Agri, projekt 2017-4500. EIP-Agri - Landsbygdsnätverket (landsbygdsnatverket.se)

Available from: 2023-09-25 Created: 2023-09-25 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Gunnarsson, C., Baky, A., del Pilar Castillo, M., Eliasson, L., Fahrni, J., Gustafsson, T., . . . Xanthakis, E. (2022). Utvinning av högvärdiga komponenter för förbättrad värdekedja för vall till etanol och bioolja.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utvinning av högvärdiga komponenter för förbättrad värdekedja för vall till etanol och bioolja
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2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Extraction of high-value components for improved value chain for ley grass to ethanol and biooil
Abstract [en]

Grass-clover ley holds an importance role for a sustainable crop production and is mainly used as feed for ruminants. But ley also contains proteins, if extracted, suitable for monogastric animals such as pigs and poultry. If these proteins are extracted, the degree of self-sufficiency of proteins in Sweden can increase and better resource utilization is achieved. In this study we evaluated the utilization of fresh and ensiled grass-clover ley in a straw-based agricultural biorefinery for producing protein concentrate, ethanol, bio-oil and biogas.

Practical lab scale tests of extraction of high value components for food and feed applications from the liquid fraction after ley pressing were carried out. Pretreatments of the solid fraction prior to ethanol fermentation, bio-oil production using HTL (hydrothermal liquefaction) and biogas production were tested. The system for production and supply of the ley was described and the potential for increased ley production in Sweden was quantified. The environmental and economic efficiency of the proposed biorefinery system was evaluated using environmental systems analysis and technoeconomic assessment.

In terms of system profitability, a high protein yield in the extracted protein concentrate it is important. To achieve that, a thorough pre-treatment using mechanical biomass disintegration before fractioning is crucial. This may need to be done in several steps. Screw pressing is a common technique for fractionating ley into a liquid and solid fraction. Double pressing combined with enzymatic treatments or only water addition during the second pressing stage were found to increase the protein yield compared to single pressing. Second pressing had no effect on the amino acid profile of the protein concentrate.

After pressing fresh ley, heat coagulation or isoelectric precipitation can be used to precipitate protein concentrates in one- or two-step processes to produce protein fractions with different functional properties. Tests showed that it is possible to recover chlorophyll and carotenoids from the ley using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. which is a suitable method for food applications as toxic organic solvents can be avoided. The ensiling process degrades the protein into smaller peptides or free amino acids which makes ensiled grass less suitable for protein recovery by heat coagulation or isoelectric precipitation. Fresh and ensiled timothy and meadow fescue showed a similar amino acid profile as soybeans.

The initial hypothesis that mechanical pressing may disintegrate the lignocellulosic structure of ley sufficiently to produce a sugar stream with a high concentration of sugar for further fermentation by enzymatic hydrolysis was not confirmed. The content of sugars released after the enzymatic hydrolysis was relatively low. The fibre fraction after the mechanical pressing can be suitable for ethanol production if an additional pretreatment method will be incorporated. Fermentation of pressed and steam-exploded ensiled mixed ley showed promising results. The bio-oils produced with the HTL-process were described of high quality, i.e., high carbon content and low ash content. Although, the obtained materials are not directly integrable in today's refineries, the ensiling did not seem to affect the material's potential for biofuel production. The methane potential tests that were carried out in the project of the liquid residual fraction after protein extraction and after the HTL process showed that both can be suitable for methane production, but they showed great behavior differences.

The results from the environmental system analysis showed that extraction of high-quality products from ley, straw and sawdust according to the studied system reduces climate impact (CO2 eq) when the use of ethanol, bio-oil and biogas replaces fossil fuels, protein concentrate replaces soy as feed and carbon dioxide replaces fossil carbon dioxide. At present, the climate impact from extracted protein concentrate is higher than for soybean meal. Grass source for protein extraction followed by ethanol and bio-oil production as an alternative to straw-based ethanol and bio-oil production did not seem to improve the profitability of the studied biorefinery system. Profitability may be improved if protein extraction is performed the whole all year and not seasonal. Higher prices of the extracted protein concentrate may also improve profitability.

The potential for increased grassland cultivation in Sweden for biorefining was estimated at approximately 3.4 million tonnes grass per year. This included incorporating grassland in the crop rotation in grain-dominated areas, intensification of existing grassland cultivation, utilization of fallow and abandoned arable land for grassland cultivation.

Based on the results and the experience acquired from this project, we suggest an extraction plant for grass-clover ley that operates for both fresh and ensiled grassland all year. The plant needs to be supplemented with more advanced technologies such as membrane filtration for the extraction of amino acids from the ensiled ley during the winter season. The protein extraction plants should be located near farms. The extraction plant is also suggested to be located together with a biogas plant to enable co-digesting residual fractions with manure. Thereby, enabling plant nutrients and minerals in digestate to be returned to arable land. Utilizing the solid fiber fraction for biofuel production with fermentation and HTL in large-scale processes remains promising.

Publisher
p. 106
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:79
Keywords
Agriculture, biorefinery, grass-clover, protein, HTL, biofuel
National Category
Agricultural Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59787 (URN)978-91-89711-19-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-07-06 Created: 2022-07-06 Last updated: 2023-11-22
Semenoglou, I., Eliasson, L., Uddstål, R., Tsironi, T., Taoukis, P. & Xanthakis, E. (2021). Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil from Arctic charr side streams from filleting processing. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 71, Article ID 102712.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil from Arctic charr side streams from filleting processing
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2021 (English)In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 71, article id 102712Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although Arctic charr side streams contain limited amounts of fish flesh, they are a rich fish oil source (46.3 ± 0.6%). The aim of the study was to investigate the potential for valorization of Arctic charr filleting side streams through the extraction of oil by supercritical CO2 technology. The effect of temperature (40 °C and 80 °C) and pressure (20, 35 and 45 MPa) on the final extract after supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was evaluated. Temperature increase enhanced the yield but decreased the antioxidant activity at 45 MPa, did not affect the yield and the antioxidant activity at 35 MPa, whereas yield was limited at 20 MPa and 80 °C. Extracts were rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (56.7–58.3%, especially oleic acid 37.2–38.0%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (20.2–26.1%, especially DHA 7.3–11.4%). The presence of astaxanthin significantly preserved the extracts from oxidation. Industrial relevance: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a green technology appropriate for the recovery of non-polar and heat sensitive compounds. The extracted Arctic charr oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and astaxanthin which inhibited oxidation in combination with the absence of oxygen and light during the process. This technology could be an excellent alternative for more sustainable valorization of fish processing side streams. © 2021 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Antioxidant activity, Arctic charr, Astaxanthin, Fatty acids composition, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-53524 (URN)10.1016/j.ifset.2021.102712 (DOI)2-s2.0-85106929783 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: SUIT4FOOD; Funding details: European Commission, EC; Funding text 1: This research was supported by a mobility grant from the Erasmus+ Key Action 2 Strategic Partnership Project on Sustainable Intervention Technologies for controlling Food Safety and Stability (SUIT4FOOD) of the European Union. We would also like to thank Umlax AB (Lycksele, Sweden) for the kind collaboration to provide the Arctic charr side streams.; Funding text 2: This research was supported by a mobility grant from the Erasmus+ Key Action 2 Strategic Partnership Project on Sustainable Intervention Technologies for controlling Food Safety and Stability (SUIT4FOOD) of the European Union . We would also like to thank Umlax AB (Lycksele, Sweden) for the kind collaboration to provide the Arctic charr side streams.

Available from: 2021-06-17 Created: 2021-06-17 Last updated: 2021-06-18Bibliographically approved
Ferri, M., Vannini, M., Maria, E., Eliasson, L., Xanthakis, E., Monari, S., . . . Tassoni, A. (2020). From winery waste to bioactive compounds and new polymeric biocomposites: A contribution to the circular economy concept. Journal of Advanced Research, 24, 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From winery waste to bioactive compounds and new polymeric biocomposites: A contribution to the circular economy concept
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2090-1232, Vol. 24, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper aims at optimising and validating possible routes toward the full valorisation of grape agrowaste to produce bioactive molecules and new materials. Starting from Merlot red pomace, phenol complex mixtures were successfully extracted by using two different approaches. Extracts obtained by solvent-based (SE) technique contained up to 46.9 gGAeq/kgDW of total phenols. Depending on the used solvent, the prevalence of compounds belonging to different phenol families was achieved. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) gave higher total phenol yields (up to 79 gGAeq/kgDW) but a lower range of extracted compounds. All liquid extracts exerted strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, both SE and PLE extraction solid residues were directly exploited (between 5 and 20% w/w) to prepare biocomposite materials by direct mixing via an eco-friendly approach with PHBV polymer. The final composites showed mechanical characteristics similar to PHVB matrix. The use of pomace residues in biocomposites could therefore bring both to the reduction of the cost of the final material, as a lower amount of costly PHBV is used. The present research demonstrated the full valorisation of grape pomace, an agrowaste produced every year in large amounts and having a significant environmental impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2020
Keywords
Biocomposites, Biowaste, Grape pomace, Polyphenols, Pressurized liquid extraction, Solvent-based extraction
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44442 (URN)10.1016/j.jare.2020.02.015 (DOI)2-s2.0-85080998586 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020, 688338; Funding text 1: This work was supported by the NoAW project (“Innovative approaches to turn agricultural waste into ecological and economic assets”), founded by the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the grant agreement No 688338 .

Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2021-08-19Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, L., Oliveira, G., Maria, E., Höglund, E. & Alminger, M. (2019). Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through preprocessing and drying.. Food science & nutrition, 7(4), 1379-1386
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through preprocessing and drying.
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2019 (English)In: Food science & nutrition, ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1379-1386Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Berry powders are popular as ingredients in a range of food products, where they naturally provide flavor, color, texture, polyphenols, fiber, and other nutrients. The choices regarding processing techniques and conditions influence the quality attributes of berry powders. The aim of this study was to study the effects on bilberry powder functionalities of applying different preprocessing techniques (purée mixing and juice pressing vs. untreated whole berries) prior to hot air drying and milling. Drying of press cake reduced the drying time by 72% and increased the total apparent phenolic content of the final powder by 44%, as compared to the powder of dried whole berries. The press cake powder showed an easier flowing behavior than the powders from whole berries and puréed berries. Dispersibility (in water and dairy cream) was 60% higher for powders from whole berries and puréed berries, as compared to press cake. The total phenolic content of the dispersed powders was highest for whole berries and puréed berries. Bilberry powder functionality can be modulated through the selection of an appropriate preprocessing technique before drying and milling. This tailors the powder properties into food ingredients ready for different applications, without the need for additives.

Keywords
bilberry, dispersibility, drying, flowability, polyphenols, processing
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38664 (URN)10.1002/fsn3.972 (DOI)31024711 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064843960 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Oliveira, G., Eliasson, L., Maria, E., Höglund, E., Andlid, T. & Alminger, M. (2019). Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through processing: Effects of drying and fractionation on the stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins. Food Science & Nutrition, 7(3), 1017-1026
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through processing: Effects of drying and fractionation on the stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins
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2019 (English)In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1017-1026Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bilberries are a rich natural source of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. The press cake obtained during the processing of bilberry juice is a potential source of phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to evaluate different drying techniques and the fractionation of bilberry press cake powder toward obtaining phenolic-rich ingredients for incorporation into value-added food products. The derived powders were dispersed in water and dairy cream, to investigate the effects of drying and fractionation on the dispersibility and solubility of phenolic compounds. The drying techniques, hot air drying and microwave drying, applied on bilberry press cake reduced the content of total phenolics and anthocyanins. The degradation was, however, consistently small and similar for both techniques. The major anthocyanins detected in the samples were stable during drying and fractionation treatments. Fractionation of the press cake powder affected the total apparent phenolic content and composition of the different fractions. The highest phenolic content (55.33 +/- 0.06 mg g(-1) DW) and highest anthocyanin content (28.15 +/- 0.47 mg g(-1) DW) were found in the fractions with the smallest particle size (<500 mu m), with delphinidin-3-O-galactoside being the most abundant anthocyanin. Dispersibility of all dried powder samples was higher in dairy cream than water, and the highest level of anthocyanins was measured in samples from the powder with the smallest particle size (<500 mu m), dispersed in cream. The application of drying, milling and fractionation was found to be a promising approach to transform bilberry press cake into stable and deliverable ingredients that can be used for fortification of food products with high levels of phenolic compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43328 (URN)10.1002/fsn3.972 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064843960 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-20 Created: 2020-01-20 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Samborska, K., Eliasson, L., Marzec, A., Kowalska, J., Piotrowski, D., Lenart, A. & Kowalska, H. (2019). The effect of adding berry fruit juice concentrates and by-product extract to sugar solution on osmotic dehydration and sensory properties of apples. Journal of food science and technology, 56(4), 1927-1938
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of adding berry fruit juice concentrates and by-product extract to sugar solution on osmotic dehydration and sensory properties of apples
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2019 (English)In: Journal of food science and technology, ISSN 0022-1155, E-ISSN 0975-8402, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 1927-1938Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Osmotic dehydration (OD) of apples caused a reduction of normalized water content (NWC) and an increase of normalized solids gain (NSG), independently of the kind of osmotic solution. The use of 22°Brix osmotic solutions with the addition of fruit concentrates or bilberry extract resulted in only slight reduction in the NWC in the samples, i.e. by about 15 and 20%, respectively after 6 and 24 h, against a value up to 80% in case of 65°Brix use. Similarly, larger NSG was achieved at higher solution concentrations, but the differences were smaller. In the case of the use of 80% bilberry press cake extract the NSG was very low but NWC was relatively high. Such a low concentration of slightly concentrated fruit juices is not effective for dehydration of apples, but it may be sufficient to enrich the fruit with the desired colorants. This higher concentration of osmotic solution and a larger addition, especially of the concentrate of chokeberry juice, significantly affected the color changes of dehydrated apples. The apple dehydrated in mixture of 65°Brix sucrose and 15% chokeberry juice concentrate solution exhibited the highest sensory parameters. The addition of berry fruit juices and extract was able to improve the apple sensory quality after 24 h OD in comparison with sucrose solution. Ethanol extract was a good osmotic agent, but not accepted due to taste and overall quality. However, the addition of the extract can be successfully used in conjunction with a sugar solution. © 2019, The Author(s).

Keywords
Apple, Bilberry juice, By-product, Chokeberry juice, Ethanol bilberry extract, Peleg’s model, Byproducts, Dehydration, Ethanol, Fruit juices, Osmosis, Sugar (sucrose), Normalized water content, Osmotic dehydration, S models, Sensory properties, Solution concentration, Fruits
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38236 (URN)10.1007/s13197-019-03658-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062793964 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-27 Created: 2019-03-27 Last updated: 2021-06-18Bibliographically approved
Höglund, E., Eliasson, L., Oliveira, G., Almli, V. L., Sozer, N. & Alminger, M. (2018). Effect of drying and extrusion processing on physical and nutritional characteristics of bilberry press cake extrudates. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 92, 422-428
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of drying and extrusion processing on physical and nutritional characteristics of bilberry press cake extrudates
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2018 (English)In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 92, p. 422-428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mild drying and extrusion processing of side streams from berry juice production can enable retention of valuable compounds in the food chain and reduce waste production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of using hot air (HA) and microwave assisted hot air (MWHA) drying combined with extrusion for conversion of bilberry press cake into value-added extruded food products. Bilberry press cake was dried at 40 °C by HA and MWHA drying to a moisture content of 17 g/100 g. A twin screw extruder (average feed rate 72 g/min, temperature profile 135-128-89-69 °C) was used to extrude products containing organic wholegrain rye flour and 10% or 25% dried bilberry press cake powder. A consumer panel (n = 15) evaluated four extrudates on hedonic and Just-About-Right (JAR) scales, with a main focus on texture properties. The results indicate that different drying techniques implied a difference in processing time (40% reduction with MWHA drying). However, the retention of total phenolics and physical characteristics of extruded snacks containing bilberry powders were independent of drying techniques. In sum, powder of bilberry press cake can be incorporated in cereal based extruded snacks with enhanced phenolic content and potential for palatable sensory properties.

Keywords
Extrusion, Food products, Fruit juices, Presses (machine tools), Thermal processing (foods), Extrusion processing, Microwave assisted, Nutritional characteristics, Physical characteristics, Sensory properties, Temperature profiles, Texture properties, Twin screw extruders, Drying
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33985 (URN)10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02.042 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042705722 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Core; Funding details: EC, European Commission;

Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Xanthakis, E., Huen, J., Eliasson, L., Jha, P. K., Le-Bail, A. & Shrestha, M. (2018). Evaluation of microwave assisted freezing (MAF) impact on meat and fish matrices. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018 (pp. 176-181).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of microwave assisted freezing (MAF) impact on meat and fish matrices
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2018 (English)In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 176-181Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Several preservation methods have been investigated, developed and exploited over the last years but freezing still remains one of the most popular among them which offers fresh-like characteristics on the food matrix after long period of storage. The freezing process of food matrices is affected by their dominant constituent which is water. The final quality of the frozen product depends on the phase transition or the crystallization process of changing water into ice. The size of the ice crystals is critical for the final quality of the frozen food. In the present study a novel more advanced experimental setup was designed and developed for the application of microwave radiation during freezing. The influence of microwave assisted freezing (MAF) on meat and fish matrices under different conditions was investigated and promising results regarding the microstructure of the frozen samples were acquired.

Keywords
Food, Freezing, Microstructure, Microwave, Chains, Fish, Food products, Food storage, IIR filters, Meats, Microwaves, Sustainable development, Crystallization process, Food matrixes, Freezing process, Frozen food, Frozen sample, Ice crystals, Microwave assisted, Preservation methods, Thermal processing (foods)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34474 (URN)10.18462/iir.iccc.2018.0024 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046278763 (Scopus ID)9782362150241 (ISBN)
Conference
5th IIR Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, ICCC 2018, 6 April 2018 through 8 April 2018
Note

 Funding details: ANR-14-SUSF-0001, ANR, Agence Nationale de la Recherche; Funding details: Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas;

Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2021-06-18Bibliographically approved
Casimir, J., Östlund, J., Holtz, E., Hondo, H., Eliasson, L. & Moore, S. (2018). Småskalighet som ett medel för att bana väg för framtidens livsmedel?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Småskalighet som ett medel för att bana väg för framtidens livsmedel?
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The food value chain system in Sweden is well established making it hard for small companies to develop new products and even harder to create new food supply systems Obstacles could lay at the beginning of the chain (food production or processing), at the end (marketing, consumer) or could even be related to the legislative regulation framing the food supply chain. Smaller actors often lack resources and networks to develop their sector. However, their degree of creativity, innovativeness, and engagement is high, and their energy is needed in the development of new sustainable food value chains.

The aim of this project was to develop and apply a methodology for evaluating food value chains, focusing on profitable small-scale production systems in Sweden that show potential for fast development of new products that quickly reach the market. The work also included identifying Swedish raw food materials with growth potential and to identify how they could come into greater demand. Ten food value chains with high development potential in Sweden and for export were mapped and the main bottlenecks briefly described. Three food chains where selected based on a potential-difficulty-benefit matrix. The three selected food value chains were: (i) Hops, (ii) Swedish forest berries, and (iii) Land-based fish farming. These three food value chains where further studied looking at the whole value chain, from production to end consumer. Through literature review and contacts with relevant stakeholders (telephone interview, face-to-face interview, or workshop) the bottlenecks were clarified and potential solutions for increased demand where identified.

Swedish hops production is carried out by passionate and engaged smaller actors, mostly on a hobby level, and the hops is used as an ingredient for beer. Germany and the USA produce about 75% of the worldwide production These hops varieties are not adapted to the Swedish climate and therefore result in a low volume and poor quality. However, domestic varieties have been grown in the past giving better yield under Swedish climate conditions. More work is needed to characterize the quality of Swedish hops. At the present time, knowledge about the characteristics of Swedish hops is low, explaining the lack of interest from brewers. In Sweden most hops are harvested by hand, making it nearly impossible to be profitable on the market. The mechanization of the harvesting step is necessary to move Swedish hops from a hobby to a commercial activity. No solutions are available on the Swedish market, RISE together with SLU is looking to develop a hops harvester fulfilling Swedish and EU regulations and adapted to small scale cultivation. At the end of the value chain, innovative products could increase the need for Swedish hops, for example by developing beers brewed with fresh hops. Moreover, hops have antiseptic characteristics and could potentially be used in other food products than beer.

Only about four percent of the berries that are produced by the Swedish forests every year are picked. The largest volumes picked are for bilberry (Swedish: blåbär), lingonberry, and cloudberry and most of them are washed and frozen in Sweden. Processing of berries, however, has to a large extent moved out of the country while the products produced for the Swedish market are quite traditional, low-processed foods such as jams, juices and dessert soups. The majority of the Swedish berries mainly bilberries due to their nutritional content are exported and are further processed into value added powders or extracts in Asia and Europe. In Sweden this kind of value chain is under developed largely due to knowledge barriers and to the currently very traditional market. However, there is a great consumer interest in berries and they have a perceived healthiness also in Sweden. Consumers are also increasingly aware of the origin of berries used as ingredients in products such as jams, purees and juice, as well as in health food products. To fill this gap between consumer interest/demand and raw materials available new businesses can be developed. To facilitate such development there is a need for knowledge generation and transfer along the whole value chain (picking, processing, product development and consumer studies), which can be generated by starting up new innovation and research projects. It is also of importance to facilitate networking, for example in the ‘berry network’ (coordinated by RISE), as the creation of a new value chain will require different businesses to cooperate. Also, product development projects will need support for testing, pilot production, and possibly in finding investment funding for new equipment.

Land-based fish farming is small in comparison to traditional fish farming in Sweden, but several actors see a great potential in this system which has a lower impact on the environment compared to conventional fish farms. For instance, the Swedish farmer federation (LRF) has invested in a land-based fish farm recently. As in other EU-countries, the number of active farms in Sweden is decreasing and some see the potential to recycle unused animal stables into fish farms. A major bottleneck for land-based fish farming is current legislation as it is based on conventional fish farming and therefore does not consider the environmental benefits of land-based systems. Knowledge should be spread to relevant authorities and policy makers to open a dialog and facilitate the development of a relevant regulatory framework. Regarding the production phase, access to sustainably produced feed and technical competence are lacking. Moreover, as the technology is costly learning through trial and error would not be recommended. A testbed dedicated to land-based fish farming could support companies who wish to try modifications to their system. Furthermore, smaller producers have difficulties in finding processing solutions for their products; e.g. slaughterhouses and conditioning. Two potential solutions would be to develop a land-based fish farm cooperative and/or mobile systems that could take care of smaller productions. Finally, the competition on the market is tough as land-based fishes are competing with large-scale conventional fish farms from Norway and Asia. To overcome this bottleneck, the sector could develop its own certification as well as increasing the consumers awareness and knowledge.

Some conclusions could be applied to all the studied food chains. For instance, each value chain can be seen as a puzzle with many pieces. In order to develop new food value chains many separate pieces need to fall into place. Therefore, it is necessary to increase collaboration between stakeholders but also to have a stakeholder driven coordination of this collaboration. The stakeholders within the developing value chains often do not have all the resources to carry out this task, especially if they are small businesses. The development of cooperatives also seems to be a solution to overcome bottlenecks in the studied food chains. Likewise, logistics in the developing value chains have a great margin for improvement. Furthermore, this project focused on value chains where food commodities are the end product but investigating the potential for non-food uses would also be of interest.

The method used in this project can be replicated to other value chains with potential of development. It would help the users to get a holistic view of the current bottlenecks and facilitate contact between stakeholders. The list of bottlenecks can be followed up and used as an indicator to evaluate if the value chain in moving forward.

Abstract [sv]

Svensk livsmedelsproduktion är väl etablerad och gör det svårt för små företag att utveckla nya produkter och ännu hårdare att skapa nya livsmedelsvärdekedjor. Flaskhalsar kan uppstå i början av värdekedjan (primärled och förädlingsprocesser), i andra änden (marknad, konsumenter), eller kan relateras till regelverk som genomsyrar hela kedjan. Små aktörer saknar ofta resurser och nätverk att utveckla sitt område. De har emellertid hög kreativitet, stor innovationsrikedom och ett stort engagemang, vilket krävs för att utveckla hållbara livsmedelsvärdekedjor.

Projektets mål var att utveckla och applicera en metodik för att utvärdera livsmedelsvärdekedjor med fokus på lönsamhet för svensk, småskalig produktion samt att bidra till en ökad utvecklingstakt. Arbetet innebar även att identifiera livsmedelsråvaror med potential för tillväxt och att identifiera hur dess efterfrågan kan ökas. Projektet kartlade livsmedelsvärdekedjor med hög utvecklingspotential inom Sverige och för export. Tio livsmedelsvärdekedjor identifierades och de huvudsakliga flaskhalsarna i kedjan beskrevs översiktligt. Tre livsmedelsvärdekedjor valdes ut baserat på en potential-svårighets-möjlighets-matris. De valda livsmedelskedjorna var: (i) Humle, (ii) Svenska skogsbär, och (iii) Landbaserad fiskodling. Dessa tre livsmedelsvärdekedjor studerades i detalj med hela värdekedjan inkluderad, från produktion till slutkonsument. Genom litteraturstudier och kontakt med relevanta aktörer (telefonintervjuer, face-to-face-intervjuer eller workshop) bekräftades flaskhalsarna och möjliga lösningar för ökad efterfrågan identifierades.

Svensk humleproduktion bedrivs med stor passion och stort engagemang av små aktörer, mestadels på hobbynivå. Humlen produceras för att användas som ingrediens i öl. Tyskland och USA står för ca 75 % av världens humleproduktion. Många av dessa humlesorter är inte anpassade för svenskt klimat, vilket resulterar i låga skördevolymer och otillräcklig kvalitet. Inhemska sorter som traditionellt odlats i Sverige ger bättre skördenivåer i svenska klimatförhållanden och tidig mognad. Det finns en efterfrågan på svensk humle hos bryggerier, men på grund av att kvaliteten hos de svenska sorterna är ojämn och bristfälligt karakteriserad med avseende på aromer och beska, vill bryggerierna inte köpa råvaran. I Sverige skördas den mesta humlen för hand, ett tidsödande arbete som gör det i princip omöjligt att uppnå lönsamhet i produktionen. En mekanisering av skörden är nödvändig för att svensk humleproduktion ska ta steget från hobby till kommersiell produktion. Inga kommersiella lösningar finns ännu tillgängliga, RISE kommer i samarbete med SLU utveckla en skördemaskin som uppfyller EU-standard och är anpassad för småskalig humleodling. Ett nytänkande i värdekedjans senare del, såsom att utnyttja humlens aromatiska egenskaper i sitt färska tillstånd, skulle kunna öka efterfrågan på svensk humle. Humle har dessutom antiseptiska egenskaper som skulle kunna utnyttjas för fler produkter än öl.

Endast fyra procent av bären som växer i svenska skogar plockas varje år. Till de bär som plockas mest hör blåbär, lingon och hjortron. De flesta rensas och fryses ner i Sverige. Förädling av bären har däremot flyttat utomlands och de produkter som tillverkas i Sverige är traditionella, lågprocessade sylter, juicer och krämer. Majoriteten av svenska bär mestadels blåbär för sitt nutritionella värde, exporteras och förädlas vidare till pulver eller extrakt i Asien och Europa. Den typen av värdekedja har inte etablerats i Sverige på grund av bristande kunskap samt en än så länge traditionell marknad. Dock finns ett stort konsumentintresse i bär då de även här anses ha positiva hälsoeffekter. Konsumenter är även mer medvetna om bärens ursprung i produkter som sylt, puré och juice samt kosttillskott. Intresset och efterfrågan av bär som råvara kan bemötas med nya affärsmöjligheter. Denna utveckling skulle underlättas genom att generera och sprida kunskap genom hela värdekedjan (plockning, förädling, produktutveckling och konsumenter), och kan genereras med hjälp av nya innovationer och forskningsprojekt. Det är också viktigt att stödja nätverkande, som i till exempel ”Bärnätverket” (koordinerat av RISE), eftersom nya värdekedjor kräver nya samarbeten i affärsutvecklingen. Även produktutvecklingen behöver stöd i form av produktion i pilotskala och möjligen investeringsstöd för ny utrustning.

Landbaserad fiskodling är liten i jämförelse med traditionell odling av fisk i Sverige, men flera aktörer ser stor potential med landbaserade system som generellt ger lägre miljöpåverkan än fiskodlingar i sjöar och hav. Exempelvis Lantbrukarnas Riksförbund (LRF) har nyligen investerat i en landbaserad fiskodling. Likt andra EU-medlemsländer har antalet aktiva lantbruksföretag i Sverige minskat, varav några ser en möjlighet att konvertera övergivna djurstallar till bassänger för fiskodling. Den huvudsakliga flaskhalsen i utvecklingen av landbaserad fiskodling består i det regelverk som måste följas, men som utgår från traditionell fiskodling. Det innebär att regelverket inte tar hänsyn till de miljöfördelar som ses med landbaserad fiskodling. Det behövs en öppen dialog och kunskap måste spridas till berörda makthavare och beslutsfattare för att anpassa regelverket. I produktionsfasen finns behov av ett miljömässigt hållbart foder samt ökad teknisk kunskap. Tekniken är kostsam vilket gör det svårt att lära sig genom misslyckade försök till fiskodling i pilotskala. En testbädd anpassad för landbaserad fiskodling kan stödja företag som vill utveckla eller förändra sitt system. Små producenter har svårt att hitta praktiska lösningar för deras produktion, t.ex. vad gäller slakt och filétering. Två möjliga lösningar är att bilda ett kooperativ och/eller mobila system som riktar sig till små producenter. Konkurrensen på marknaden är hård eftersom landbaserad fisk konkurrerar med storskaliga fiskodlingar i Norge och Asien. Problemet kan lösas med en särskild märkning och certifiering samt genom att öka konsumenternas medvetenhet och kunskap.

Några av dessa lösningar kan användas till samtliga studerade livsmedelsvärdekedjor. Värdekedjorna kan ses som ett pussel med många bitar där alla bitar måste falla på rätt plats för att en utveckling ska ske. Därför är det nödvändigt att öka samarbetet mellan aktörer, men också att ha en drivande aktör som koordinerar samarbetet. Aktörerna inom värdekedjan har ofta inte kapacitet att driva det arbetet, särskilt inte små aktörer. Kooperativ ser ut att vara en möjlig lösning för de studerade livsmedelsvärdekedjorna. Likaså kan logistiken i värdekedjorna förbättras. Det här projektet fokuserade på värdekedjor där slutprodukten utgörs av ett livsmedel, men att undersöka möjligheten att skapa andra typer av produkter kan vara värdefullt.

Metodiken som användes i det här projektet kan användas för andra värdekedjor med potential att utvecklas. Det skulle hjälpa aktörerna att få en tydlig bild över förekommande flaskhalsar och underlätta kontakten mellan aktörer. Listan över flaskhalsar kan följas upp och användas som indikator för att utvärdera om utvecklingen av värdekedjan går åt rätt håll.

Publisher
p. 74
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:29
Keywords
new food chains, hops, wild berries, land-based fish farming, bottleneck, solution
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science Food Science Horticulture Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33931 (URN)978-91-88695-66-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-12 Created: 2018-06-12 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3171-1203

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