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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Vesterlund, M., Borisova, S. & Emilsson, E. (2024). Data center excess heat for mealworm farming, an applied analysis for sustainable protein production. Applied Energy, 353, Article ID 121990.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data center excess heat for mealworm farming, an applied analysis for sustainable protein production
2024 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 353, article id 121990Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since Sweden joined the EU in 1995, importing food became easier and cheaper, leading to certain parts of the country, such as Norrbotten, becoming highly dependent on imports. This dependency, along with the inherent environmental impact of imports, could be significantly reduced by local farming. The environmental emissions originating from animal farming could be lowered even further by substituting the highly polluting soybean feed with, e.g., insect feed. This study examines the farming of mealworms, utilizing excess heat from a data center, part of a growing industry in Norrbotten county, as a means of alternative feedstock for animal production and a case study for industrial symbiosis. This industrial symbiosis project is in line with the EU’s incentive to use other sources of protein and thus lower the EU’s reliance on the import of foreign protein. Three different feeding approaches are tested, in a room heated with data center excess heat of 30 °C and at room temperature of about 20 °C. After the adult mealworms were harvested, a sample was taken to analyze their nutritional values. The results show that protein, lipid, and fiber content is 19,1 g, 12,6 g, and 2,7 g per 100 g, respectively. All amino acids except tryptophan were detected. This project concludes that it is possible to reach full-grown mealworms in about 8 weeks, which is about half the time stated in the literature. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Norrbotten; Sweden; Amino acids; Animals; Environmental impact; Farms; Feedstocks; Alternative feedstocks; Applied analysis; Datacenter; Environmental emissions; Excess heats; Industrial symbiosis; Insect protein; Mealworm production; Protein production; Self-sufficiency; environmental impact; incentive; industrial production; insect; protein; soybean; Proteins
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67677 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.121990 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173260162 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was supported by Interreg Nord , under grant NYPS 20201839 , Arctiq-DC 

Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2023-11-30Bibliographically approved
Ljungqvist, H. M., Risberg, M., Toffolo, A. & Vesterlund, M. (2023). A realistic view on heat reuse from direct free air-cooled data centres. Energy Conversion and Management: X, 20, Article ID 100473.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A realistic view on heat reuse from direct free air-cooled data centres
2023 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management: X, ISSN 2590-1745, Vol. 20, article id 100473Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the opportunities to reuse excess heat from direct free air-cooled data centres without incorporating heat pumps to upgrade the heat. The operation of a data centre in northern Sweden, Luleå, was simulated for a year. It was established that heat losses through the thermal envelope and from the humidification of the cooling airflow influenced the momentary energy reuse factor, iERF, with up to 7%. However, for the annual energy reuse factor, ERF, the heat losses could be neglected since they annually contributed to an error of less than 1%. It was shown that the ideal heat reuse temperature in Luleå was 13, 17, and 18 °C with an exhaust temperature of 30, 40 and 50 °C. The resulting ERF was 0.50, 0.59 and 0.66, meaning that a higher exhaust temperature resulted in potentially higher heat reuse. It could also be seen that raising the exhaust temperature lowered the power usage effectiveness, PUE, due to more efficient cooling. Using heat reuse applications with different heat reuse temperatures closer to the monthly average instead of an ideal heat reuse temperature for the whole year improved the ERF further. The improvement was 11–31% where a lower exhaust temperature meant a higher relative improvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67663 (URN)10.1016/j.ecmx.2023.100473 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174895802 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 768875Swedish Energy Agency, 43090-2
Note

This study was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency under grant 43090-2, Cloudberry Datacenters and by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 768875, Boden type DC one.

Available from: 2023-11-22 Created: 2023-11-22 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Forsgren, H., Brännvall, R., Vesterlund, M. & Minde, T. B. (2023). Homomorphic Encryption Enables Data and Algorithm Confidentiality for Remote Monitoring and Control: An Application to Data Center Systems. In: Companion Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems: . Paper presented at e-Energy '23 Companion: Companion Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems. June 2023 (pp. 85-90). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Homomorphic Encryption Enables Data and Algorithm Confidentiality for Remote Monitoring and Control: An Application to Data Center Systems
2023 (English)In: Companion Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, Association for Computing Machinery , 2023, p. 85-90Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The design of intelligent algorithms used for device monitoring and control can be costly and is an investment that must be protected against reverse engineering by competitors. An algorithm can be safeguarded by running remotely from the cloud instead of locally on the equipment hardware. However, such a setup requires that sensitive data is sent from the device to the cloud. Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is an emerging technology that offers a solution to this problem since it enables computation on encrypted data. A cloud service using FHE can protect its proprietary algorithms while simultaneously offering customer data confidentiality. The computational overhead for the technology is, however, still very high. This work reports on a practical investigation of using FHE for data center remote control problems: What applications are feasible today? And at what cost?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2023
Keywords
remote control, homomorphic encryption, confidential computing, remote monitoring, neural networks
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65653 (URN)10.1145/3599733.3600254 (DOI)
Conference
e-Energy '23 Companion: Companion Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems. June 2023
Available from: 2023-07-05 Created: 2023-07-05 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
Cáceres, C., Törnroth, S., Vesterlund, M., Johansson, A. & Sandberg, M. (2022). Data-Center Farming: Exploring the Potential of Industrial Symbiosis in a Subarctic Region. Sustainability, 14(5), Article ID 2774.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data-Center Farming: Exploring the Potential of Industrial Symbiosis in a Subarctic Region
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2022 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 2774Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As our world becomes increasingly digitalized, data centers as operational bases for these technologies lead to a consequent increased release of excess heat into the surrounding environment. This paper studies the challenges and opportunities of industrial symbiosis between data centers’ excess heat and greenhouse farming, specifically utilizing the north of Sweden as a case study region. The region was selected in a bid to tackle the urgent urban issue of self-sufficiency in local food production. A synergetic approach towards engaging stakeholders from different sectors is presented through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to facilitate resilient data-center-enabled food production. The paper delivers on possible future solutions on implementing resource efficiency in subarctic regions. © 2022 by the authors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
Data centers, Energy modeling, Energy optimization, Excess heat reuse, Greenhouse farming, Industrial symbiosis, Subarctic climate, Sustainable development, exploration, farming system, subarctic region, symbiosis, Sweden
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58892 (URN)10.3390/su14052774 (DOI)2-s2.0-85125779626 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: VINNOVA, 2018-04156; Funding text 1: Funding: This research was funded by VINNOVA, 2018-04156.

Available from: 2022-03-30 Created: 2022-03-30 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Sommarin, P., Broberg, S., Petersson, J., Vesterlund, M., Mellgren, A. & Råberg, T. (2022). Innovativa energieffektiva växthus - designade för lågtempererade energikällor och värmeåtervinning.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovativa energieffektiva växthus - designade för lågtempererade energikällor och värmeåtervinning
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2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Innovative energy efficient greenhouses – Low-temperature energy sources and heat recovery
Abstract [sv]

Lågtempererad restvärme är i dag en underutnyttjad resurs i samhället trots stor tillgång. I den här förstudien har växthus studerats, dvs system med stort behov av värmeenergi under delar av året. Projektet studerade teoretiskt ett växthuskoncept som använder lågvärdiga (30 – 40 °C) externa och interna värmekällor för uppvärmning, samt nyttjandet av frikyla (daggpunkt ca 25–10 °C) via termiskt lager för avfuktning. Syftet med förstudien är att skapa förutsättningar för hållbar och konkurrenskraftig växthusodling i Sverige genom synergier mellan olika branscher och tekniker. Som möjliggörare föreslås ett nytt koncept, som utvecklas för växthusodling, där energi- och odlingseffektivitet samspelar. Genom att utvärdera konceptet avser förstudien besvara frågeställningar om hur energieffektiv teknik dels kan minska energibehovet för växthus, dels använda sig av lågtempererade värmekällor, i kombination med värmeåtervinning, samtidigt som klimatet i växthuset styrs så odlingskapaciteten och CO2-gödsling förbättras. Resultatet visar att potentialen är mycket årstidsberoende och mycket beroende av hur stor värmekällan från växtbelysning är. Värmeåtervinning av växthusets interna värme kan minska värmeenergibehovet med ca 85% och växthuset kan använda lågtempererad värmekälla på ca 30–40 °C. Ytterligare resultat är att produktionen även kan ökas med ca 30–50% (beroende på årstid) med effektiv CO2-gödning och bättre klimat för växterna.

Abstract [en]

Residual excess heat from industrial processes is today an under-utilized resource in society despite access to large amounts of energy. The project compiled a feasibility study, where a greenhouses concept was created. The concept consisted of residual heat from cooling industrial processes (30 – 40 °C), furthermore, utilizes free-cooling trough a thermal storage for cooling and dehumidification. The purpose of the feasibility study is to create conditions for sustainable and competitive greenhouse cultivation in Sweden through synergies between different industries and technologies. As an enabler, a new concept is proposed, which is being developed for greenhouse cultivation, in which energy and cultivation efficiency interact. By evaluating the concept, the feasibility study aims to answer questions about how energy-efficient greenhouse technology can reduce energy demand, as well as re-use residual energy sources, combined with heat recovery, while steering the climate in the greenhouse to improve cultivation capacity and CO2 fertilization. The result shows that the potential is strongly influenced by the additional heat from artificial light, which in turn is strongly correlated to the time of the season. The greenhouse's internal excess heat can be stored and returned to the greenhouse when there is a need, which may reduce the need of additional heating by approximately 85%. The greenhouse can also use low temperature heat sources to keep it warm, for example by using low temperature residual heat of about 30-40 ° C. An additional result from the modelling is that production can be increased by as much as approximately 30– 50% (depending on the season) with efficient CO2 fertilization due to an improved climate for the plants.

Publisher
p. 37
Series
Energimyndigheten - Slutrapport
Keywords
Växthus, CO2-gödsling, restvärme, lokalodlat
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60246 (URN)
Note

Denna rapport är slutrapporten för projektet ”Innovativa energieffektiva växthus –designade för lågtempererade energikällor och värmeåtervinning” ochsammanfattar projektet och dess resultat. Projektet har finansierats avEnergimyndigheten med samfinansiering från Enrad AB, Härnösands Energi &Miljö och Provolitans OY via forsknings- och innovationsprogrammet Termo ochpågått under perioden 1 december 2020 – 30 juni 2022.

Available from: 2022-10-05 Created: 2022-10-05 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Galkin, N., Yang, C.-W., Berezovskaya, Y., Vesterlund, M. & Vyatkin, V. (2022). On Modelling of Edge Datacentre Microgrid for Participation in Smart Energy Infrastructures. IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, 3, 50-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Modelling of Edge Datacentre Microgrid for Participation in Smart Energy Infrastructures
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2022 (English)In: IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 2644-1284, Vol. 3, p. 50-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Datacentres are becoming a sizable part of the energy system and are one of the biggest consumers of the energy grid. The so-called “Green Datacentre” is capable of not only consuming but also producing power, thus becoming an important kind of prosumers in the electric grid. Green datacentres consist of a microgrid with a backup uninterrupted power supply and renewable generation, e.g., using photovoltaic panels. As such, datacentres could realistically be important participants in demand/response applications. However, this requires reconsidering their currently rigid control and automation systems and the use of simulation models for online estimation of the control actions impact. This paper presents such a microgrid simulation model modelled after a real edge datacentre. A case study consumption scenario is presented for the purpose of validating the developed microgrid model against data traces collected from the green edge datacentre. Both simulation and real-time validation tests are performed to validate the accuracy of the datacentre model. Then the model is connected to the automation environment to be used for the online impact estimation and virtual commissioning purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
Biological system modeling, Cooling, Data models, Load modeling, Microgrids, Renewable energy sources, Uninterruptible power systems, Automation, Biological systems, Electric power transmission networks, Online systems, Photovoltaic cells, Renewable energy resources, Datacenter, Energy grids, Energy infrastructures, Energy systems, Microgrid, Renewable energy source, Simulation model, Smart energies, Virtual reality
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59104 (URN)10.1109/OJIES.2021.3138537 (DOI)2-s2.0-85122278310 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-04-13 Created: 2022-04-13 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Vesterlund, M., Borisová, S., Lundmark, E., Leinonen, V., Tiensuu, H., Markeby-Ljungqvist, H., . . . Suutala, J. (2021). Data center for biomass drying.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data center for biomass drying
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2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Arctiq-DC is a InterReg North funded project with a total budget of about €1´430´000 where 9 partners from Sweden and Finland are collaborating: Oulu University, Oulun Data Center, Aurora Data Center, SFTec, Xarepo, Hushållningssällskapet, Älvsbyns municipality, Hydro 66 and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden as coordinator. The project duration is almost three years and consist of six main activities where the fourth is about cooling and heat reuse from data center. This report describes the trails that were made for evaluating data center excess heat as heat source for biomass drying.

Publisher
p. 48
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-54707 (URN)
Note

ArctiqDC – Arctic data centers 2019 - 2021  

Available from: 2021-06-30 Created: 2021-06-30 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Ljungqvist, H. M., Mattsson, L., Risberg, M. & Vesterlund, M. (2021). Data center heated greenhouses, a matter for enhanced food self-sufficiency in sub-arctic regions. Energy, 215, Article ID 119169.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data center heated greenhouses, a matter for enhanced food self-sufficiency in sub-arctic regions
2021 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 215, article id 119169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the possibility of increasing Northern Sweden's degree of self-sufficiency in food supply, at the 65th latitude, by using a data center as a heating source for greenhouse production. A dynamic building energy simulation software was used to compute both the hourly exhaust air output from a 1 MW data center for one year and the corresponding heating demand for two different greenhouse sizes, 2000 m2 and 10 000 m2, and two different production scenarios. Partial year production, 1 Mars – 15 October, without grow lights and full-year production with grow lights. The study showed that 5.5–30.5% of the electrical input to a 1 MW data center could be recovered. The 2000 m2 greenhouse could operate almost entirely, 89.7–97.9%, on excess heat while only 50.0–61.5% of the 10 000 m2 greenhouse heating demand could be met for full- and partial-year production, respectively. Furthermore, it is concluded that the 10 000 m2 greenhouse with full year production was the most prominent case and would cost-effectively yield 7.6% of northern Sweden's vegetable self-sufficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Data center, Excess heat, Greenhouse production, Heat recovery, Waste heat, Computer software, Food supply, Greenhouses, Building energy simulations, Data centers, Electrical inputs, Greenhouse heating, Heating demand, Heating source, Northern sweden, Thermal processing (foods), arctic environment, food consumption, greenhouse gas, self sufficiency, simulation, software, vegetable, Sweden
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-50961 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2020.119169 (DOI)2-s2.0-85095423203 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Interreg, NYPS 20201839; Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 43090–2; Funding text 1: This study was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency under grant 43090–2 , Cloudberry Datacenters and by Interreg Nord, under grant NYPS 20201839 , Arctiq-DC.

Available from: 2020-12-17 Created: 2020-12-17 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Brännvall, R., Mattsson, L., Lundmark, E. & Vesterlund, M. (2020). Data center excess heat recovery: A case study of apple drying. In: ECOS 2020 - Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: . Paper presented at 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2020, 29 June 2020 through 3 July 2020 (pp. 2165-2174). ECOS 2020 Local Organizing Committee
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data center excess heat recovery: A case study of apple drying
2020 (English)In: ECOS 2020 - Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2020 Local Organizing Committee , 2020, p. 2165-2174Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Finding synergies between heat producing and heat consuming actors in an economy provides opportunity for more efficient energy utilization and reduction of overall power consumption. We propose to use low-grade heat recovered from data centers directly in food processing industries, for example for the drying of fruit and berries. This study analyses how the heat output of industrial IT-load on servers can dry apples in a small-scale experimental set up. To keep the temperatures of the server exhaust airflow near a desired set-point we use a model predictive controller (MPC) re-purposed to the drying experiment set-up from a previous work that used machine learning models for cluster thermal management. Thus, conditions with for example 37 C for 8 hours drying can be obtained with results very similar to conventional drying of apples. The proposed solution increases the value output of the electricity used in a data center by capturing and using the excess heat that would otherwise be exhausted. The results from our experiments show that drying foods with excess heat from data center is possible with potential of strengthening the food processing industry and contribute to food self-sufficiency in northern Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ECOS 2020 Local Organizing Committee, 2020
Keywords
Data center, Drying process, Industrial symbiosis, Self-sufficiency, Waste heat recovery, Energy efficiency, Energy utilization, Fruits, Predictive control systems, Processed foods, Waste heat, Conventional drying, Exhaust airflow, Experiment set-up, Experimental set up, Food processing industry, Machine learning models, Model predictive controllers, Northern sweden, Drying
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-50933 (URN)2-s2.0-85095775160 (Scopus ID)
Conference
33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2020, 29 June 2020 through 3 July 2020
Note

Funding details: Interreg, NYPS 20201839; Funding text 1: This study was supported by Interreg Nord, under grant NYPS 20201839, Arctiq-DC.

Available from: 2020-12-02 Created: 2020-12-02 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Brännvall, R., Mattsson, L., Lundmark, E. & Vesterlund, M. (2020). Data center excess heat recovery: A case study of apple drying. In: ECOS 2020 - Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: . Paper presented at 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2020. 29 June 2020through 3 July 2020 (pp. 2165-2174). ECOS 2020 Local Organizing Committee
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data center excess heat recovery: A case study of apple drying
2020 (English)In: ECOS 2020 - Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2020 Local Organizing Committee , 2020, p. 2165-2174Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Finding synergies between heat producing and heat consuming actors in an economy provides opportunity for more efficient energy utilization and reduction of overall power consumption. We propose to use low-grade heat recovered from data centers directly in food processing industries, for example for the drying of fruit and berries. This study analyses how the heat output of industrial IT-load on servers can dry apples in a small-scale experimental set up. To keep the temperatures of the server exhaust airflow near a desired set-point we use a model predictive controller (MPC) re-purposed to the drying experiment set-up from a previous work that used machine learning models for cluster thermal management. Thus, conditions with for example 37 C for 8 hours drying can be obtained with results very similar to conventional drying of apples. The proposed solution increases the value output of the electricity used in a data center by capturing and using the excess heat that would otherwise be exhausted. The results from our experiments show that drying foods with excess heat from data center is possible with potential of strengthening the food processing industry and contribute to food self-sufficiency in northern Sweden. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ECOS 2020 Local Organizing Committee, 2020
Keywords
Energy efficiency; Energy utilization; Fruits; Predictive control systems; Processed foods; Waste heat, Conventional drying; Exhaust airflow; Experiment set-up; Experimental set up; Food processing industry; Machine learning models; Model predictive controllers; Northern sweden, Drying
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67540 (URN)2-s2.0-85095775160 (Scopus ID)
Conference
33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2020. 29 June 2020through 3 July 2020
Note

This study was supported by Interreg Nord, under grant NYPS 20201839, Arctiq-DC.

Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2023-10-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7381-9154

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