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Hynynen, J., Quant, M., Pramanik, R., Olofsson, A., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Andersson, P. (2023). Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

Publisher
p. 79
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2023:42
Keywords
Electric vehicle, fire safety, enclosed space, parking garage, vehicle fire, field experience, hazard identification
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Other Chemical Engineering Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64248 (URN)978-91-89757-90-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M., Gehandler, J. & Bleye, J. (2023). Fire suppression and manual firefighting of batteryelectric vehicle fires on ro-ro ships. In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: . Paper presented at Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023 (pp. 107).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire suppression and manual firefighting of batteryelectric vehicle fires on ro-ro ships
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, 2023, p. 107-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about firefighting measures including water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) and tactics and equipment used for manual firefighting on ro-ro cargo and ro-ro passenger ships. A test series involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV’s) and battery electric vehicles (BEV’s) under as equal test conditions as possible were conducted to investigate the performance efficiency of the drencher system. In addition, manual firefighting equipment and tactics was evaluated on three BEV fire tests. It is concluded that a fire in the two types of vehicles is different but share similarities. However, a fire in a BEV does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in an ICEV for the drencher system design given in current international recommendations. Similarly, there are common (e.g., handheld fire extinguishers and hoses) and new (e.g., fire blanket and water-cooling device) manual firefighting equipment that effectively can be used to control or limit a BEV fire.

Keywords
: ICEV, BEV, sprinkler systems, water spray system, drencher system, manual firefighting, ro-ro spaces, ships.
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71491 (URN)
Conference
Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023
Note

The project has received funding from the European Union’sHorizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 814975

Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M. & Mindykowski, P. (2023). Fire testing of alternative fixed fire-extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces onboard ships. Ships and Offshore Structures, 18(3), 423-428
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire testing of alternative fixed fire-extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces onboard ships
2023 (English)In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 423-428Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) recognises five different fire-extinguishing system solutions for ro-ro spaces on ships; manually activated water spray systems (Resolution A.123(V)), automatic sprinkler or deluge water spray systems and automatic nozzle or deluge water mist systems (MSC.1/Circ.1430), high-expansion foam systems and gas fire-extinguishing systems (FSS Code). A review of potential commercially available alternative systems, their expected performance efficiency and water consumption was made. Based on this review, two alternative fire-extinguishing systems were identified: Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS) and foam-water sprinkler/spray systems. Fire suppression performance testing of water spray systems according to the Resolution A.123(V) and MSC.1/Circ.1430, a CAFS and a foam-water spray system were conducted. The water spray system per MSC.1/Circ.1430 had superior performance while the system per Resolution A.123(V) and the foam-water spray system limited the fire size to some degrees. The CAFS provided limited fire suppression performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2023
Keywords
CAFS, extinguishment, Fire, ro-ro space, water spray, Compressed air, Fire extinguishers, Fire protection, Ships, Spray nozzles, Sprinkler systems (irrigation), Air foam, Compressed air foam system, Fire suppression performance, Fire-extinguishing systems, International conventions, Safety of life at seas, Spray systems, Water sprays, Fires
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59239 (URN)10.1080/17445302.2022.2061768 (DOI)2-s2.0-85129631611 (Scopus ID)
Note

The authors would like to thank the manufacturers who provided equipment, support and technical advices for the fire tests: TYCO Fire Suppression & Building Products (Sweden), Jomos Eurosprinkler AG (Switzerland), Dr. R. Stahmer GmbH & Co. KG (Germany), FireFlex Systems Inc. (Canada), Dafo Fomtec AB (Sweden).

Available from: 2022-05-24 Created: 2022-05-24 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M. & Westlund, Ö. (2023). Water Spray Fire Suppression Tests Comparing Gasoline-Fuelled and Battery Electric Vehicles. Fire technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water Spray Fire Suppression Tests Comparing Gasoline-Fuelled and Battery Electric Vehicles
2023 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about the performance efficiency of water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) typically installed on ro–ro cargo and ro–ro passenger ships. A test series was conducted involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar gasoline-fuelled and battery electric vehicles in test conditions as equivalent as possible. During testing, key parameters such as the heat release rate, the gas temperature above the vehicle and the surface temperature of target steel sheet screens at the sides of the vehicle were measured. Fire ignition was arranged in such a way that the gasoline fuel or the battery pack was involved at the initial stage of the fire. It is concluded that fires in the two types of vehicles are different but have similarities. However, a fire in a battery electric vehicle does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in a gasoline-fuelled vehicle for a drencher system designed in accordance with current international recommendations

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-66068 (URN)10.1007/s10694-023-01473-w (DOI)
Note

Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. The project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 814975.

Available from: 2023-08-18 Created: 2023-08-18 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
Ingason, H., Li, Y. Z., Arvidson, M. & Jiang, L. (2022). Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel. Fire safety journal, 129, Article ID 103567.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel
2022 (English)In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 129, article id 103567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of 1:3 intermediate scale tunnel fire tests was performed to investigate the performance of a fully automatic sprinkler system in a road tunnel. The experiments were carried in a container tunnel with scaled geometry, using wood pallets as the fire source to simulate HGV fires. The activation of the sprinklers was simulated by using thermocouples that corresponded to a given Thermal Response Index (RTI) of a sprinkler bulb or a link. A total of 12 tests were carried out with varying longitudinal velocities (0.8–1.7 m/s), sprinkler activation temperatures (68–141 °C), water densities (2.9–8.7 mm/min) and types of arrangement of the fuel. The activation times, number of activated sprinklers, maximum heat release rates and other key parameters are presented and analyzed. The results show that the water density plays a key role in the performance of the automatic sprinkler systems tested. A high tunnel ventilation velocity, low water density and low sprinkler activation temperature are not recommended. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Activation, Automatic sprinkler, Model scale, Tunnel fire, Tunnel velocity, Chemical activation, Fires, Flammability testing, Sprinkler systems (irrigation), Thermocouples, Activation temperatures, Fire tests, Performance, Road tunnel, Sprinkler activation, Tunnel fires, Water density, Hose
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58999 (URN)10.1016/j.firesaf.2022.103567 (DOI)2-s2.0-85127092273 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering, SKB; Funding details: Trafikverket; Funding text 1: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundstr?m at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.; Funding text 2: The research was sponsored by the Tunnel and Underground Safety Center (TUSC) with additional funding from the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) . The financiers of TUSC are the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Thanks to Ulf Lundström at STA who contributed extensively to the discussion and preparation for this work and the technical staff at RISE who made it possible to perform the tests.

Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M. (2020). Fire protection of robotic top-loading compact storage systems. Fire Protection Engineering (85), 16-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire protection of robotic top-loading compact storage systems
2020 (English)In: Fire Protection Engineering, ISSN 1524-900X, no 85, p. 16-22Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gaithersburg: Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE), 2020
Keywords
Fire, compact storage systems, sprinklers
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44776 (URN)
Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M. & Frantzich, H. (2020). Sprinklersystem i fortifikationsläggningar under mark: Kostnad och nytta. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sprinklersystem i fortifikationsläggningar under mark: Kostnad och nytta
2020 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Sprinkler systems in fortification facilities below ground: Cost and benefit
Abstract [en]

Fortifikationsverket (FORTV) has expressed a desire to investigate the design, reliability, performance and cost of a sprinkler system for a typical underground fortification facility. Based on the cost and the benefit associated with a sprinkler system, a cost-benefit analysis was performed. In addition, water mist fire protection systems were studied. The installation cost analysis was based on two fictious facilities; a small facility with a net area of 1 000 m2 and a large facility with a 5 000 m2 net area.

The estimated installation cost for a traditional sprinkler system in the smaller type facility is about SEK 1,3 million and about SEK 3,3 million for the larger type facility. The installation cost for a high-pressure water mist system is higher than that of a traditional sprinkler system for the smaller type facility but comparable for the larger type facility. A low‑pressure water mist system seems to be the least expensive option for both types of facilities. This is probably because the system, unlike a traditional sprinkler system, requires smaller pipe sizes, smaller water pumps and a smaller water tank and unlike a high-pressure system uses normal steel pipes and less expensive centrifugal pumps.

The cost-benefit analysis for the fictitious type facilities shows that a sprinkler system is cost-effective, especially for the larger type facility. But it should be noted that the uncertainty in the data base is quite large, which means that the trends in the result can be used for further analysis, but that the actual values ​​of the benefit ratio should be viewed with some caution. The sprinkler system mainly has an effect to reduce the property loss. The expected benefit for personal injury is around one percent of the total benefit of the sprinkler system. This is because the risk of fatality and injuries in the event of a fire is small, as people can usually put themselves in safety. The reduction in property loss was assumed to be 75%, and an assumed lowered benefit of sprinklers (50% and 25% property loss reduction, respectively) leads to a lower benefit ratio but for the large type facility the benefit ratio is still above 1,0. The benefit of sprinklers also decreases if the assumed fire frequency is reduced. However, for the larger type plant, the calculation shows that there is still a benefit, even if the assumed fire frequency is halved. The same applies if the cost of replacement of expensive equipment is assumed to be half as high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2020. p. 59
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2020:08
Keywords
Sprinkler systems, underground fortification facilities, reliability, effectiveness, cost-benefit
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43536 (URN)978-91-89049-88-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-31 Created: 2020-01-31 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M., Karlsson, P., Bisschop, R., Evegren, F., Mindykowski, P., Leroux, J., . . . Gustin, L. (2018). FIRESAFE II   Alternative fixed‑fire extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces on ships.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FIRESAFE II   Alternative fixed‑fire extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces on ships
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effectiveness of ‘drencher systems’ per Resolution A.123(V) has been questioned for many years. This report presents a review of potential commercially available alternative systems and their expected performance efficiency, water consumption and estimated installation costs. Additionally, large‑scale fire tests were performed for selected systems.

Three main alternative fire-extinguishing systems were identified:

  • Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS)
  • Foam-water sprinkler and foam‑water spray systems; and
  • Water curtains.

Water curtains was the least expensive system, but the areas sub‑divided by the water curtains require cargo spacing, resulting in significant yearly losses in income for a ship owner. Furthermore, water curtains were de-selected since they cannot replace a conventional fire-extinguishing system.

The installation cost for the selected CAFS was very high and it gave limited fire suppression in the large‑scale fire tests, probably due to the limited discharge density of 2.4 mm/min.

The system per MSC.1/Circ.1430 (10 mm/min) had superior performance while the system per Resolution A.123(V) (5 mm/min) and the foam‑water spray system (6.5 mm/min + foam) limited the fire size to some degrees. However, for a potential spill fire scenario, improvements of foam could be relevant.

Foam injection could be an alternative, but no new system was recommended to be required.

Publisher
p. 116
Keywords
fire, safety, ro-ro, ship, Fire extinguishing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39945 (URN)
Projects
FIRESAFE II
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Arvidson, M., Evegren, F., Jandali, M., Larsson, F. & Rosengren, M. (2018). Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The shipping industry is facing increasing pressure to cut emissions. Diesel-electric hybrid or fully electrical propulsion systems can offer significant savings in fuel consumption and reduce emissions. However, the use of energy storage battery systems on board vessels is introducing new fire hazards and advice on suitable fire extinguishing systems and agents is desired. In a series of tests, both total compartment application water spray and water mist systems and direct injection (using several different agents) into the module were evaluated in fire tests conducted to compare different fire extinguishing approaches for a fire in a battery cell. A test compartment was constructed to simulate a battery room and a commercially available lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cell was positioned inside a cubic box that mimicked a battery module. By heating the battery cell, combustible gases were generated, and these gases were ignited by a pilot flame inside the simulated battery module. The tests indicated that fire extinguishment of a battery cell fire inside a battery module is unlikely when using total compartment water spray or water mist fire protection systems. The water droplets are simply not able to penetrate the battery module and reach to the seat of the fire. Direct injection of the fire extinguishing agent inside the battery module is necessary. The tests also showed that agents such as water and low-expansion foam, with a high heat capacity, provide rapid cooling and fire extinguishment. The reduced water surface tension associated with low-expansion foam may improve the possibilities for water penetration whilst agents with a high viscosity may not be able to spread to the seat of the fire. Agents with less heat capacity, such as high-expansion foam and nitrogen gas, provide less cooling but fire extinguishment can still be achieved if designed correctly.

Publisher
p. 49
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:77
Keywords
lithium-ion batteries, ships, battery room, fire-fighting
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36683 (URN)978-91-88907-27-1 (ISBN)
Note

The Lion Fire @ Sea project was funded by the Swedish Maritime Administration (Sjöfartsverket) and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.

Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P., Aras, S., Arvidson, M., Frantzich, H., Larsson, I., Vermina Lundström, F., . . . Runefors, M. (2018). Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder. Borås
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thisreport summarizes the work conducted within the project ”Analysis of physicaldeterminants and technical measures in support of the zero vision” financed bythe Civil Contingency Authority (MSB) in Sweden. The work aims to find measuresto prevent and reduce the number of fatalities in fires in residentialbuildings in a Sweden, a list of such measures is provided in the end of thereport. The list is based on work conducted in several small sub-projects, ashort summary of these is also provided in the report.

Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport utgör slutrapport i projektet ”Analys av brandsäkerhetens fysiska bestämningsfaktorer och tekniska åtgärder som stöd till nollvisionen” som har finansierats av MSB. Rapporten sammanfattar projektet i form av förslag på åtgärder som kan införas för att minska antalet omkomna och skadade i bostadsbränder. De rekommenderade åtgärderna baseras på de resultat som framkommit i de underprojekt som genomförts under projektets gång. En kort sammanfattning av de projekten ges, för fullständig information hänvisas läsaren till de olika delprojektsrapporterna.

För att minska antalet döda och skadade i bränder i bostäder behövs många olika åtgärder, det finns ingen universallösning som kan förhindra alla dödsfall i bostadsbränder. Åtgärderna som rekommenderas inkluderar:

  • Fortsatt satsning på brandvarnare i hemmet, både i form av fler brandvarnare och bättre brandvarnare
  • Informationsspridning genom t.ex. bättre spridning av sidan ”Din säkerhet”
  • Bättre brandskydd för personer som vårdas i hemmet
  • Brandkrav på lös inredning 
  • Fortsatt och förbättrad uppföljning av dödsbränder
  • Mer vikt vid nyttan av brandskyddsåtgärder i regelverk även om det inte går att räkna hem nyttan rent samhällsekonomiskt
  • Fortsatt forskning inom området gällande t.ex. bättre brandvarnare, utvärderingsverktyg olika insatser samt bränder med okänd orsak.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: , 2018. p. 32
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2018:37
Keywords
Fires, Residential fires, Fire fatalities, Fire prevention, Fire measures, Bränder, bostadsbränder, omkomna i bränder, förebyggande åtgärder, förebyggnade brandskydd
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33857 (URN)978-91-88695-75-8 (ISBN)
Projects
Analys av brandsäkerhetens fysiska bestämningsfaktorer och tekniksa åtgärder som stöd till nollvivionen
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2014-5284
Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6264-7307

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