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Amiryarahmadi, N. & Kropp, W. (2023). Subjective evaluation of impact sound from footsteps. In: Proceedings of the 10th Convention of theEuropean Acoustics AssociationForum Acusticum 2023: . Paper presented at 10th Convention of the European Acoustics Association Forum Acusticum 2023 Torino, Italy. September 11 - 15, 2023 (pp. 2467).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective evaluation of impact sound from footsteps
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th Convention of theEuropean Acoustics AssociationForum Acusticum 2023, 2023, p. 2467-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Low-frequency impact sound caused by upstairs neighbors walking on the floor is a key acoustic challenge regarding lightweight floors and a major source of disturbance particularly in wooden buildings. To investigate the effect of floor design on the perceived walking sound, a virtual design tool has been developed, which allows for auralising the impact sounds containing low frequencies down to 20 Hz. Using this tool, footstep sounds on 10 different lightweight floors were auralised by a loudspeaker grid mounted in the ceiling of an acoustically controlled lab, which is furnished as a common living room. The walking sounds were subjectively evaluated through listening tests while the subjects were sitting freely on a sofa without needing to use any extra listening equipment. The listening test results suggest that loudness, thumpiness and reverberation are correlated with the perceived annoyance. The results also indicate a correlation between annoyance and age as well as the individual experience of earlier exposure to noise.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72326 (URN)10.61782/fa.2023.1270 (DOI)
Conference
10th Convention of the European Acoustics Association Forum Acusticum 2023 Torino, Italy. September 11 - 15, 2023
Available from: 2024-03-15 Created: 2024-03-15 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Amiryarahmadi, N. & Kropp, W. (2023). Subjective evaluation of impact sound from footsteps. In: Proceedings of Forum Acusticum: . Paper presented at 10th Convention of the European Acoustics Association, EAA 2023 Torino, Italy. 11 September 2023 through 15 September 2023. European Acoustics Association, EAA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective evaluation of impact sound from footsteps
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of Forum Acusticum, European Acoustics Association, EAA , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Low-frequency impact sound caused by upstairs neighbors walking on the floor is a key acoustic challenge regarding lightweight floors and a major source of disturbance particularly in wooden buildings. To investigate the effect of floor design on the perceived walking sound, a virtual design tool has been developed, which allows for auralising the impact sounds containing low frequencies down to 20 Hz. Using this tool, footstep sounds on 10 different lightweight floors were auralised by a loudspeaker grid mounted in the ceiling of an acoustically controlled lab, which is furnished as a common living room. The walking sounds were subjectively evaluated through listening tests while the subjects were sitting freely on a sofa without needing to use any extra listening equipment. The listening test results suggest that loudness, thumpiness and reverberation are correlated with the perceived annoyance. The results also indicate a correlation between annoyance and age as well as the individual experience of earlier exposure to noise. © 2023 First author et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Acoustics Association, EAA, 2023
Keywords
Wooden buildings; Annoyance; Design tool; Footstep; Impact sound; Lightweight floors; Listening tests; Living room; Lower frequencies; Subjective evaluations; Virtual design; Floors
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-73245 (URN)2-s2.0-85191237996 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th Convention of the European Acoustics Association, EAA 2023 Torino, Italy. 11 September 2023 through 15 September 2023
Available from: 2024-05-24 Created: 2024-05-24 Last updated: 2024-05-27Bibliographically approved
Amiryarahmadi, N. & Kropp, W. (2021). A virtual design studio for low frequency impact sound from walking. Acta Acustica, 5, Article ID 40.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A virtual design studio for low frequency impact sound from walking
2021 (English)In: Acta Acustica, ISSN 2681-4617, Vol. 5, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Experience with wooden multi-storey houses have shown that impact sound insulation is one of most critical issues to ensure a good indoor environment. Even in cases where the impact sound insulation is fulfilled, people perceive the sound from e.g. walking neighbours as very disturbing. To investigate the subjective perception, a test facility is needed which allows for a coherent evaluation of different floor designs by listening test. The facility should ensure, that when comparing different floors, the same excitation by a walker and the same receiving room are involved. Only the floor design should be changed. As a consequence the spread in the data will only be due to the spread in the perception by subjects. In this paper a virtual design tool for low frequency impact sound insulation is presented, which consists of four parts; measured walking forces, floor models, an auralisation system which consists of a grid of loudspeakers simulating the vibration of the floor and a receiving room furnished as a common living room. In a pilot study a listening test is carried out for 13 different floors with different impact sound spectra at frequencies below 100 Hz. The results indicate that the judged annoyance strongly correlates with the judged loudness. However, there is a substantial spread observed in between the subjects participating in the listening tests. To understand this spread, a more extended study is needed with more participants and a classification of the subjects with respect to criteria such as noise sensitivity or age.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Acoustics Association, EAA, 2021
Keywords
Impact sound insulation, Subjective perception, Virtual lab environment, Wooden floors, Acoustic noise, Acoustic variables control, Audition, Floors, Sound insulating materials, Different floors, Impact sound, Listening tests, Lower frequencies, Multi-storey house, Subjective perceptions, Virtual design studio, Virtual lab, Sound insulation
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-56704 (URN)10.1051/aacus/2021033 (DOI)2-s2.0-85115334628 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 28 September 2021; Article; Correspondence Address: Kropp, W.; Applied Acoustics, Sweden; email: wolfgang.kropp@chalmers.se; Funding details: FR-2016/0005; Funding text 1: The work has been funded by Formas – a Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development – under grant agreement FR-2016/0005.

Available from: 2021-10-18 Created: 2021-10-18 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Amiryarahmadi, N. (2019). A Virtual Design Studio for Low-Frequency Sound from Walking in Lightweight Buildings. (Doctoral dissertation).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Virtual Design Studio for Low-Frequency Sound from Walking in Lightweight Buildings
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years there has been a growing interest for building lightweight multistorey woodenresidential buildings in countries like Sweden with large and renewable forests. While positive aspectsof these buildings, such as sustainability, ease of construction and lightness, motivate building more inwood, poor acoustic performance is a risk which concerns the wooden-building industry.Low-frequency impact sound from walking of the neighbors upstairs is the main source of complaintsabout the acoustic performance of these buildings. The disturbance caused by walking sounds,transmitted through lightweight wooden floors, results in acoustic discomfort and impairs theperceived quality of the building; sometimes even when the building has fulfilled an acoustic classhigher than minimum requirement, according to the national standard on sound classification and itssingle number ratings. The standard methods for objective evaluation of impact sound insulation offloors cannot predict, at a satisfactory level, the walking sound annoyance that the inhabitants ofwooden buildings experience. This causes an uncertainty about the resulting perceived quality of thesebuildings, which greatly concerns the building manufacturers and demotivates them from choosinglightweight wooden elements over heavyweight building materials such as concrete. This uncertaintycan be overcome by evaluating the perceived acoustic quality of the building prior to its construction.

One solution is to build test houses where the subjective acoustic performance of floor samples can beevaluated in advance to the building construction. However, building a test house is expensive;besides, for evaluating the effect of every design modification on the experienced acoustic comfort ofthe building, a real floor sample has to be built and installed in the house, which would be timeconsumingand costly. An alternative solution is to use virtual acoustic test facilities.In this thesis a virtual design studio for impact sound is developed. It is a tool that facilitates creatingand listening to the acoustic field generated by impact forces such as footsteps on lightweight floors. Italso provides the possibility to evaluate the acoustic performance of floor elements in an early designphase, and to investigate the correlation between design parameters and the perceived impact soundinsulation of the floor. The tool is demonstrated and a very first listening test shows that one can obtainresults which are in good agreement with the results in literature. Loudness, reverberation andthumping are shown to influence the annoyance. It is also shown that there is a difference in judgementof walking sounds by persons who have experience with lightweight floors at home and by those whodo not have that experience.

Publisher
p. 74
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola, ISSN 0346-718X ; 4572
Keywords
Lightweight floors, Walking sound, Low frequency, Annoyance, Virtual design studio
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39706 (URN)978-91-7905-105-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Amiryarahmadi, N., Kropp, W. & Larsson, K. (2016). Application of LMS algorithm to measure low-frequency transient forces from human walking. Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, 102(1), 23-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of LMS algorithm to measure low-frequency transient forces from human walking
2016 (English)In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 23-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurement and modeling of low frequency ground reaction forces (GRFs) from human walking have been the subjects of research in different fields from biomechanics to civil engineering and structural dynamics. Many of the existing models are developed based on experiments which alter natural walking by for example presence of force transducers, limitations in the speed and path of walking and replacing the real floor with a transducerfacilitated measurement rig. These alterations result in contact forces which do not represent real GRFs. In this study, a time-domain inverse measurement method based on LMS algorithm is used to measure low-frequency (<100 Hz) forces induced by human footsteps. The LMS-based force identification method is first validated for low-frequency excitations with less complexity in number of excitation positions and frequency content compared with the footsteps. The method is then applied to measure ground reaction forces created by human walking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Hirzel Verlag GmbH, 2016
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-433 (URN)10.3813/AAA.918921 (DOI)2-s2.0-84958180984 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-23 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Amiryarahmadi, N., Kropp, W. & Larsson, K. (2016). Identification of low-frequency forces induced by footsteps on lightweight floors. Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, 102(1), 45-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of low-frequency forces induced by footsteps on lightweight floors
2016 (English)In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite many advantages of wooden buildings, low-frequency noise disturbance, mainly from human footsteps on timber floors, is a major hindrance for widespread application of wood in multi-storey buildings. In many cases the impact noise evaluations of the wooden floors according to ISO 140-7 and ISO 717-2 standards do not correspond to subjective experiences. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of footstep forces to support further studies related to discrepancies between standard evaluations and low-frequency noise disturbances in lightweight buildings. Transient footstep forces in vertical direction made by different walkers and different footwear on two floor structures were measured and compared. The vertical footstep forces were then compared with the impact forces made by a standard tapping machine. Analysis revealed that footstep forces contain large amplitudes at low frequencies (20 < f < 50) which are not included in the standard evaluation procedure. Therefore, by extending the frequency range of the standard measurements down to 20 Hz and designing an accurate adaptation term for evaluations, a better correlation between standard impact noise evaluations and acoustic performance of the lightweight buildings might be achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Hirzel Verlag GmbH, 2016
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-432 (URN)10.3813/AAA.918923 (DOI)2-s2.0-84958206205 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-23 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Amiryarahmadi, N. & Wendin, K. (2014). Mat- och måltidsvanor samt önskningar kring detta (ed.).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mat- och måltidsvanor samt önskningar kring detta
2014 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Enkätundersökning bland äldre

Publisher
p. 34
Series
SP Rapport, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2014:51
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-5206 (URN)16597 (Local ID)978-91-87461-95-8 (ISBN)16597 (Archive number)16597 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Larsson, K., Simmons, C., Amiryarahmadi, N. & Zhang, X. (2012). Influence of tapping machine position on timber joist floors on the low frequency impact sound (ed.). In: 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012: . Paper presented at 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012; New York, NY; United States; 19-22 Aug., 2012 (pp. 6620-6630). , 8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of tapping machine position on timber joist floors on the low frequency impact sound
2012 (English)In: 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012, 2012, Vol. 8, p. 6620-6630p. 6620-6630Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

ISO plans to replace the current ISO 140-7 standard for the measurement of impact sound pressure level by a new standard, ISO 16283-2. Within the standardization work, we have examined the influence of the position of the tapping machine (TM) on top of a timber joist floor (built as the reference light weight floor 2 in ISO 10140 and the previous ISO 140-11). The question is whether it is sufficient to prescribe that the TM positions shall be randomly distributed over the floor area (as in ISO 140-7) or if they should be specified to hit the joists with one hammer (as in ISO 10140) or even hit the joists with all hammers. The room average sound pressure level was measured with 63 evenly distributed TM positions on the floor, either on top of a joist or on the web. The influence of the TM position relative the joists is rather stable at low frequencies (25-160 Hz). Having the TM at right angles to the joists and one hammer striking a joist, the average difference is 3 dB to when no joist is being hit. Comparing positions where all hammers hit the joists with positions in between the joists, the difference is typically 4-7 dB in the frequency range 25-160 Hz. The results indicate that the ISO 16283-2 could prescribe more precisely where the TM shall be positioned in order to reduce the random variations. One choice is then to follow ISO 10140-1, where the TM is placed at 45 degrees centered on the joists, such that one hammer strikes a joist.

Publisher
p. 6620-6630
Keywords
Average difference, Frequency ranges, Impact sound pressure levels, Random variation, Randomly distributed, Reference lights, Sound pressure level, Tapping machine
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12521 (URN)2-s2.0-84883574043 (Scopus ID)23949 (Local ID)9781627485609 (ISBN)23949 (Archive number)23949 (OAI)
Conference
41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012; New York, NY; United States; 19-22 Aug., 2012
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Larsson, K. & Amiryarahmadi, N. (2011). Time-domain model of a tapping machine (ed.). In: ; 5th International Conference on Sensing Technology, ICST 2011;: . Paper presented at Forum Acusticum; 6th Forum Acusticum 2011; Aalborg; Denmark; 27 June through 1 July 2011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-domain model of a tapping machine
2011 (English)In: ; 5th International Conference on Sensing Technology, ICST 2011;, 2011, , p. 1713-1718Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 1713-1718
Series
Proceedings of Forum Acusticum, ISSN 2221-3767
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12577 (URN)27058 (Local ID)27058 (Archive number)27058 (OAI)
Conference
Forum Acusticum; 6th Forum Acusticum 2011; Aalborg; Denmark; 27 June through 1 July 2011
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7603-941x

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