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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Brännvall, R., Stark, T., Gustafsson, J., Eriksson, M. & Summers, J. (2023). Cost Optimization for the Edge-Cloud Continuum by Energy-Aware Workload Placement. In: Companion Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems: . Paper presented at e-Energy '23 Companion: Companion Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems. June 2023 (pp. 79-84). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost Optimization for the Edge-Cloud Continuum by Energy-Aware Workload Placement
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2023 (English)In: Companion Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, Association for Computing Machinery , 2023, p. 79-84Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article investigates the problem of where to place the computation workload in an edge-cloud network topology considering the trade-off between the location-specific cost of computation and data communication. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo simulation model is defined that accounts for different workload types, their distribution across time and location, as well as correlation structure. Results confirm and quantify the intuition that optimization can be achieved by distributing a part of cloud computation to make efficient use of resources in an edge data center network, with operational energy savings of 4–6% and up to 50% reduction in its claim for cloud capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2023
Keywords
cost optimization, sustainability, data center, edge, energy efficiency
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65654 (URN)10.1145/3599733.3600253 (DOI)
Conference
e-Energy '23 Companion: Companion Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems. June 2023
Available from: 2023-07-05 Created: 2023-07-05 Last updated: 2023-07-05Bibliographically approved
Taddeo, P., Romaní, J., Summers, J., Gustafsson, J., Martorell, I. & Salom, J. (2023). Experimental and numerical analysis of the thermal behaviour of a single-phase immersion-cooled data centre. Applied Thermal Engineering, 234, Article ID 121260.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and numerical analysis of the thermal behaviour of a single-phase immersion-cooled data centre
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2023 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 234, article id 121260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Server power densities are foreseen to increase, and conventional air-cooling systems will struggle to cope with thermal demand. Single-phase immersion systems are a promising alternative to operate very intensive workload such as high-performance computing, cryptocurrencies mining or research activities. However, few companies deal with this kind of system and there is a lack of energy models that can reproduce an accurate analysis of the system behaviour. This study addresses the experimentation, data collection, and model validation of a single-phase immersion cooling system where 54 open compute project servers, each with a peak power of 400 Watts that are submerged and operated in a dielectric coolant. Results show the evolution of the thermal profile of the system under static and dynamic workloads, and it provides a correlation of server energy use under various system temperatures. The energy model is presented, validated against real data, and exploited to investigate the system response to different cooling conditions. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the validation of the energy model and supports the basis for further investigation. © 2023 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Data centre, Energy model, Immersion cooling, Simulation, Single-phase cooling
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65978 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2023.121260 (DOI)2-s2.0-85166949943 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work has received funding from the European Union H2020 Framework Programme under Grant Agreement no. 857801 (WEDISTRICT). IREC authors would like to thank Generalitat de Catalunya for the project grant given to their research group (2021 SGR 01403). Ingrid Martorell would like to thank Generalitat de Catalunya for the project grant given to her research group (2021 SGR 01370).

Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2023-08-23Bibliographically approved
Brännvall, R., Stark, T., Gustafsson, J., Eriksson, M. & Summers, J. (2022). Cost Optimization by Energy Aware Workload Placement for the Edge Cloud Continuum.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost Optimization by Energy Aware Workload Placement for the Edge Cloud Continuum
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report investigates the problem of where to place computation workload in an edge-cloud network topology considering the trade-off between the location specific cost of computation and data communication.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64293 (URN)
Available from: 2023-04-17 Created: 2023-04-17 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Battaglioli, S., Lebon, M., Jenkins, R., Summers, J., Sarkinen, J. & Robinson, A. J. (2022). Enhancement of an Open Compute Project (OCP) server thermal management and waste heat recovery potential via hybrid liquid-cooling. In: THERMINIC 2022 - 28th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems, Proceedings: . Paper presented at 28th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems, THERMINIC 2022, 28 September 2022 through 30 September 2022. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancement of an Open Compute Project (OCP) server thermal management and waste heat recovery potential via hybrid liquid-cooling
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2022 (English)In: THERMINIC 2022 - 28th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A multiphysics Simulation-Driven Design approach has been undertaken to augment the OCP Leopard Server thermal management and heat recovery hardware with the Nexalus hybrid liquid-cooled sealed server technology. Independent testing at the RISE Research Institute of Sweden has proven up to 98% heat recovery is achievable at water temperatures up to and exceeding 65°C. The improved design could maintain the elevated water temperature over a range of CPU workloads, ranging from 8% to 75%. Importantly, the design solution achieves this within an architecture that is IOU in height, half that of the original stock 20U server, potentially doubling the compute density of a rack. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022
Keywords
Data Centers, heat recovery, liquid cooling, servers, Liquids, Temperature control, Waste heat utilization, Waste management, Water temperature, Datacenter, Design approaches, Improved designs, Liquid cooled, Multiphysics simulations, Research institutes, Simulation-driven designs, Waste-heat recovery, Water temperatures, Waste heat
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61592 (URN)10.1109/THERMINIC57263.2022.9950635 (DOI)2-s2.0-85143361555 (Scopus ID)9781665492294 (ISBN)
Conference
28th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems, THERMINIC 2022, 28 September 2022 through 30 September 2022
Note

 Funding details: Science Foundation Ireland, SFI, 13/RC/2077]2; Funding text 1: This publication was developed with partial financial support of the CONNECT research centre via Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) grant number 13/RC/2077]2.

Available from: 2022-12-21 Created: 2022-12-21 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Brännvall, R., Siltala, M., Gustafsson, J., Sarkinen, J., Vesterlund, M. & Summers, J. (2020). EDGE: Microgrid Data Center with Mixed Energy Storage. In: e-Energy 2020 - Proceedings of the 11th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems: . Paper presented at 11th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, e-Energy 2020, 22 June 2020 through 26 June 2020 (pp. 466-473). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EDGE: Microgrid Data Center with Mixed Energy Storage
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2020 (English)In: e-Energy 2020 - Proceedings of the 11th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2020, p. 466-473Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Low latency requirements are expected to increase with 5G telecommunications driving data and compute to EDGE data centers located in cities near to end users. This article presents a testbed for such data centers that has been built at RISE ICE Datacenter in northern Sweden in order to perform full stack experiments on load balancing, cooling, micro-grid interactions and the use of renewable energy sources. This system is described with details on both hardware components and software implementations used for data collection and control. A use case for off-grid operation is presented to demonstrate how the test lab can be used for experiments on edge data center design, control and autonomous operation. © 2020 Author.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2020
Keywords
Batteries, Data centers, Edge, Microgrid, Monitoring, Thermal Energy Storage, Microgrids, Renewable energy resources, Smart power grids, Autonomous operations, Data collection, Hardware components, Low latency, Northern sweden, Software implementation, Use of renewable energies, Digital storage
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45627 (URN)10.1145/3396851.3402656 (DOI)2-s2.0-85088503483 (Scopus ID)9781450380096 (ISBN)
Conference
11th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, e-Energy 2020, 22 June 2020 through 26 June 2020
Note

 Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 2016-007959; Funding details: VINNOVA, ITEA3-17002; Funding text 1: This study was supported by Vinnova grant ITEA3-17002 (AutoDC), and the Swedish Energy Agency grant 2016-007959 (DMI/SamspEL). The authors also thank the following companies for their generous support in building the testbed: Box Modul AB, Bensby Rostfria AB, Borö Pannan AB, Enoc System AB, CEJN AB and ABB Ltd.

Available from: 2020-08-18 Created: 2020-08-18 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sarkinen, J., Brännvall, R., Gustafsson, J. & Summers, J. (2020). Experimental Analysis of Server Fan Control Strategies for Improved Data Center Air-based Thermal Management*. In: 2020 19th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm): . Paper presented at 2020 19th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm).Orlando, FL, USA, 2020, (pp. 341-349).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Analysis of Server Fan Control Strategies for Improved Data Center Air-based Thermal Management*
2020 (English)In: 2020 19th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), 2020, p. 341-349Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper analyzes the prospects of a holistic air-cooling strategy that enables synchronisation of data center facility fans and server fans to minimize data center energy use. Each server is equipped with a custom circuit board which controls the fans using a proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller running on the servers operating system to maintain constant operating temperatures, irrespective of environmental conditions or workload. Experiments are carried out in a server wind tunnel which is controlled to mimic data center environmental conditions. The wind tunnel fan, humidifier and heater are controlled via separate PID controllers to maintain a prescribed pressure drop across the server with air entering at a defined temperature and humidity. The experiments demonstrate server operating temperatures which optimally trade off power losses versus server fan power, while examining the effect on the temperature difference, ∆T. Furthermore the results are theoretically applied to a direct fresh air cooled data center to obtain holistic sweet spots for the servers, revealing that the minimum energy use is already attained by factory control. Power consumption and Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) are also compared, confirming that decreasing the PUE can increase the overall data center power consumption. Lastly the effect of decreased server inlet temperatures is examined showing that lower inlet temperatures can reduce both energy consumption and PUE.

Keywords
Servers, Fans, Wind tunnels, Data centers, Heating systems, Temperature measurement, server thermal management, holistic data center cooling control, energy efficiency, current leakage, data center heat reuse, power usage effectiveness (PUE), server fan control
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-49082 (URN)10.1109/ITherm45881.2020.9190337 (DOI)
Conference
2020 19th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm).Orlando, FL, USA, 2020,
Available from: 2020-10-21 Created: 2020-10-21 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Brännvall, R., Sarkinen, J., Svartholm, J., Gustafsson, J. & Summers, J. (2019). Digital Twin for Tuning of Server Fan Controllers. In: 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN): . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN) (pp. 1425-1428).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital Twin for Tuning of Server Fan Controllers
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2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2019, p. 1425-1428Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cooling of IT equipment consumes a large proportion of a modern data centre’s energy budget and is therefore an important target for optimal control. This study analyses a scaled down system of six servers with cooling fans by implementing a minimal data driven time-series model in TensorFlow/Keras, a modern software package popular for deep learning. The model is inspired by the physical laws of heat exchange, but with all parameters obtained by optimisation. It is encoded as a customised Recurrent Neural Network and exposed to the time-series data via n-step Prediction Error Minimisation (PEM). The thus obtained Digital Twin of the physical system is then used directly to construct a Model Predictive Control (MPC) type regulator that executes in real time. The MPC is then compared in simulation with a self-tuning PID controller that adjust its parameters on-line by gradient descent.

Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN)
Keywords
RNN, PEM, TensorFlow, MPC, Digital Twin
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64221 (URN)10.1109/INDIN41052.2019.8972291 (DOI)
Conference
2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN)
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-7281-2927-3, 978-1-7281-2928-0

Available from: 2023-03-10 Created: 2023-03-10 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jonauskaite, D., Summers, J. & Mohr, C. (2019). The sun is no fun without rain: Physical environments affect how we feel about yellow across 55 countries. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 66, Article ID 101350.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The sun is no fun without rain: Physical environments affect how we feel about yellow across 55 countries
2019 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 66, article id 101350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Across cultures, people associate colours with emotions. Here, we test the hypothesis that one driver of this cross-modal correspondence is the physical environment we live in. We focus on a prime example – the association of yellow with joy, – which conceivably arises because yellow is reminiscent of life-sustaining sunshine and pleasant weather. If so, this association should be especially strong in countries where sunny weather is a rare occurrence. We analysed yellow-joy associations of 6625 participants from 55 countries to investigate how yellow-joy associations varied geographically, climatologically, and seasonally. We assessed the distance to the equator, sunshine, precipitation, and daytime hours. Consistent with our hypotheses, participants who live further away from the equator and in rainier countries are more likely to associate yellow with joy. We did not find associations with seasonal variations. Our findings support a role for the physical environment in shaping the affective meaning of colour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2019
Keywords
Affect, Climate, Colour, Cross-cultural, Emotion, Environment
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40644 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvp.2019.101350 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073610690 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Russian Foundation for Basic Research, RFBR, 17-29-09145; Funding details: ICI; Funding details: Bergens Forskningsstiftelse, BFS2016REK03; Funding details: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, SNF, 100014_182138, P0LAP1_175055; Funding details: AkzoNobel; Funding text 1: This research was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation , providing a Doc.CH fellowship grant to DJ ( P0LAP1_175055 ) and a project funding grant to CM & NDa ( 100014_182138 ). MH was supported by a research grant from the Bergen Research Foundation ( BFS2016REK03 ). YG was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research ( 17-29-09145 ). The initiation of this research was possible through the support of AkzoNobel , Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) Limited, and in particular David Elliott and Tom Curwen, Color R&I team, Slough, UK, and Stephanie Kraneveld, Sassenheim, the Netherlands. We would like to further thank all the people who have contributed to the translation of the survey or to data collection, but have not provided further contributions: Chaman Afrooz Chowdhury (Bengali), Gumru Ahmadova (Azerbaijani), Felipe Andrade (Portuguese), Archil Begiashvili (Georgian), Gildas Bika (Gabon), Oh-Hyeon Choung (Korean), Yishin Chuang (Traditional Chinese), Emilija Emma (Lithuanian), Agnieszka Gawda (Polish), Stephanie Hong (Korean), Aydan Ismayilova (Azerbaijani), Jamila Ismayilova (Azerbaijani), Aurika Jonauskienė (Lithuanian), Vita Kalnberziņa (Latvian), Bruno Kemm (Spanish & Portuguese), Richard Klein (French), Árni Kristjánsson (Icelandic), Gunta Krūmiņa (Latvian), Junghee Lee (Korean), Tiraya Lerthattasilp (Thai), Abraham Lim Ken Zhi (Traditional Chinese), Arnt Lykke Jakobsen (Danish), Sarah Malekolkalami (Persian), Lucian Marin (Romanian), Riina Martinson (Estonian), Marilena Syrimi (Cyprus), Jung Min Shin (Korean), Tanisha Momtaz (Bengali), Galina Paramei (Russian), Mushfiqur Rahman (Bengali), Anchalita Ratanajaruraks (Thai), Angela Rowe (Spanish), Juliet Rowe (Spanish), Haerin Shin (Korean), Kristian Tangsgaard Hvelplund (Danish), Angeliki Theodoridou (Greek), Evelina Thunell (Swedish), Alessandro Tremea (Italian), Laura Winther Balling (Danish), Ji Won Hur (Korean), Yaffa Yeshurun (Hebrew), and Sólveig þorsteinsdóttir (Icelandic). Finally, we would like to thank all the participants. Appendix A

Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, J., Fredriksson, S., Nilsson-Mäki, M., Olsson, D., Sarkinen, J., Niska, H., . . . Summers, J. (2018). A demonstration of monitoring and measuring data centers for energy efficiency using opensource tools. In: e-Energy 2018 - Proceedings of the 9th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems: . Paper presented at 9th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, e-Energy 2018, 12 June 2018 through 15 June 2018 (pp. 506-512).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A demonstration of monitoring and measuring data centers for energy efficiency using opensource tools
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2018 (English)In: e-Energy 2018 - Proceedings of the 9th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, 2018, p. 506-512Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Data centers are complex systems that require sophisticated operational management approaches to provide the availability of digital services against the backdrop of cost and energy efficiency. To achieve this, data center telemetry data is required since, as is commonly said it is not possible to manage what cannot be measured. This paper details how it is possible to construct the key data center infrastructure management (DCIM) elements of monitoring and measuring by a combination of available opensource software tools that permit both scalability and an environment where analytics can be employed on the data center operation, which can offer relevant insight into energy efficient operational practices.

Keywords
Data centers, Measuring, Monitoring, Opensource software, Green computing, Information management, Open source software, Smart power grids, Data center operations, Digital services, Infrastructure managements, Open source tools, Operational management, Operational practices, Energy efficiency
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34440 (URN)10.1145/3208903.3213522 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050184865 (Scopus ID)9781450357678 (ISBN)
Conference
9th ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, e-Energy 2018, 12 June 2018 through 15 June 2018
Available from: 2018-08-09 Created: 2018-08-09 Last updated: 2024-03-27Bibliographically approved
Ramadhan, A., Kapur, N., Summers, J. & Thompson, H. M. (2018). Numerical development of EHD cooling systems for laptop applications. Applied Thermal Engineering, 139, 144-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical development of EHD cooling systems for laptop applications
2018 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 139, p. 144-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) air blowers are uniquely positioned to overcome the limitations of miniaturized mechanical fans in small-scale and consumer electronic devices. A novel cooling system design using optimized EHD blowers integrated with a plate-fin heat sink is presented and proposed for thin consumer electronics such as laptop applications. A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is developed and validated to solve the coupled equations of EHD flow and conjugate heat transfer and predict the cooling performance of the integrated EHD system. For a range of heat sink heights from 6 to 12 mm, a parametric study is performed to investigate the influence of geometric parameters and operating conditions on the thermal performance of the EHD systems based on heat sink thermal resistance and the highest operating temperature. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed EHD cooling system is able to provide effective cooling performance and maintain the temperature within the safe and typical operating range. Under a range of thermal design power (TDP) up to 30 W, trends of predicted operating temperatures show that the developed EHD cooling systems have great potential to compete with mechanical blowers in low-profile laptops with higher TDP, lower device height and reduced installation volume compared to a selected list of current standard laptops available commercially.

Keywords
EHD flow cooled heat sink, Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) cooling system, Integrated EHD blowers, Miniaturized electronic applications, Thermal management
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34294 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.04.119 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046705377 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: D-11-3102, HCED, Higher Committee for Education Development in Iraq; Funding details: University of Leeds;

Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8266-5038

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