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Publications (10 of 32) Show all publications
Aramrattana, M., Schrank, A., Andersson, J., Zhao, L., Hermann, D., Mharolkar, S., . . . Oehl, M. (2024). A Roadmap Towards Remote Assistance: Outcomes from Multidisciplinary Workshop at the 2023 Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. In: : . Paper presented at HCI INTERNATIONAL 2024. 26TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION. Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington DC, USA. 29 June - 4 July 2024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Roadmap Towards Remote Assistance: Outcomes from Multidisciplinary Workshop at the 2023 Intelligent Vehicles Symposium
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2024 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Remote operation of highly automated vehicles (HAVs) may include occasional assistance from a human remote operator that is located outside the HAVs. Remote assistance typically delegates only highlevel guidance tasks to the remote operators such as authorizing a driving maneuver or specifying a new driving path. As remote assistance is fairly unexplored, there are still several research challenges. These challenges were discussed by experts from academia and industry in a multidisciplinary workshop at the 2023 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. As a result of the workshop, this paper presents a list of most pressing research questions in the following areas: human-machine interaction and human factors, design of the remote station, design of the HAVs. It also outlines a roadmap for future research on remote assistance of HAV, thereby informing interdisciplinary studies and facilitating the benefits of HAVs before full autonomy can be reached.

Keywords
Remote assistance · Human factors · Remote operation · Autonomous vehicles.
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72331 (URN)
Conference
HCI INTERNATIONAL 2024. 26TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION. Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington DC, USA. 29 June - 4 July 2024
Available from: 2024-03-15 Created: 2024-03-15 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Rizgary, D., Söderman, M. & Vännström, J. (2023). Exploring remote operation of heavy vehicles – findings from a simulator study. In: IHSI 2023 Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration: Integrating People and Intelligent Systems (IHSI 2023), February 22–24, 2023, Venice, Italy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring remote operation of heavy vehicles – findings from a simulator study
2023 (English)In: IHSI 2023 Conference Proceedings, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fully automated driving has posed more challenges than expected, and remote operation of heavy vehicles is increasingly getting attention. Therefore, human remote operators may have an essential role in compensating for the technological shortcomings in vehicle automation. This poses challenges in designing the work of human remote operators of automated heavy vehicles. This paper presents findings from a research project performed in collaboration between the RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and Scania. In the project, human-automation interaction requirements and challenges for remote operator work were explored through a simulator study. Before the study, three main operator tasks were defined: assessment, assistance, and remote driving. The simulation occurred in a transportation scenario where operators handled ten trucks driving on a public road and confined areas (transportation hub). Fifteen participants completed the study. The results provide examples and insights into classical automation-related challenges in a new context – the remote operation of heavy vehicles. Instances of challenges with situational awareness, out-of-the-loop, trust, and attention management were found and are discussed in relation to HMI design and requirements.

National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64089 (URN)10.54941/ahfe1002820 (DOI)
Conference
6th International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration: Integrating People and Intelligent Systems (IHSI 2023), February 22–24, 2023, Venice, Italy
Available from: 2023-02-23 Created: 2023-02-23 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Martelaro, N., Dey, D., Burnett, G., Strömberg, H. K., Andersson, J. & Löcken, A. (2022). How to Manage Social Order in Shared Automated Vehicles. In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications: . Paper presented at AutomotiveUI '22How to Manage Social Order in Shared Automated Vehicles (pp. 201-203). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to Manage Social Order in Shared Automated Vehicles
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2022 (English)In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022, p. 201-203Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous shared ride vehicles may be prone to similar social issues and non-ideal passenger behaviors as today’s public transit. Such issues may include passengers littering, harassing others, and creating an environment that is generally unpleasant for riders. Transportation user experience designers should preemptively consider such scenarios early in their design work to help develop possible interfaces to manage social order and maintain good rider experience. Through a short video prototype, we present three possible non-ideal scenarios that may occur on shared autonomous shuttles and provide three potential solutions to begin a discussion around how to design for such non-ideal situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2022
Series
AutomotiveUI ’22
Keywords
autonomous shuttle, public behavior, social order
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60131 (URN)10.1145/3544999.3550154 (DOI)
Conference
AutomotiveUI '22How to Manage Social Order in Shared Automated Vehicles
Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Fabricius, V., Habibovic, A., Rizgary, D., Andersson, J. & Wärnestål, P. (2022). Interactions Between Heavy Trucks and Vulnerable Road Users—A Systematic Review to Inform the Interactive Capabilities of Highly Automated Trucks. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 9, Article ID 818019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions Between Heavy Trucks and Vulnerable Road Users—A Systematic Review to Inform the Interactive Capabilities of Highly Automated Trucks
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 9, article id 818019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates interactive behaviors and communication cues of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as pedestrians and cyclists as a means of informing the interactive capabilities of highly automated HGVs. Following a general framing of road traffic interaction, we conducted a systematic literature review of empirical HGV-VRU studies found through the databases Scopus, ScienceDirect and TRID. We extracted reports of interactive road user behaviors and communication cues from 19 eligible studies and categorized these into two groups: 1) the associated communication channel/mechanism (e.g., nonverbal behavior), and 2) the type of communication cue (implicit/explicit). We found the following interactive behaviors and communication cues: 1) vehicle-centric (e.g., HGV as a larger vehicle, adapting trajectory, position relative to the VRU, timing of acceleration to pass the VRU, displaying information via human-machine interface), 2) driver-centric (e.g., professional driver, present inside/outside the cabin, eye-gaze behavior), and 3) VRU-centric (e.g., racer cyclist, adapting trajectory, position relative to the HGV, proximity to other VRUs, eye-gaze behavior). These cues are predominantly based on road user trajectories and movements (i.e., kinesics/proxemics nonverbal behavior) forming implicit communication, which indicates that this is the primary mechanism for HGV-VRU interactions. However, there are also reports of more explicit cues such as cyclists waving to say thanks, the use of turning indicators, or new types of external human-machine interfaces (eHMI). Compared to corresponding scenarios with light vehicles, HGV-VRU interaction patterns are to a high extent formed by the HGV’s size, shape and weight. For example, this can cause VRUs to feel less safe, drivers to seek to avoid unnecessary decelerations and accelerations, or lead to strategic behaviors due to larger blind-spots. Based on these findings, it is likely that road user trajectories and kinematic behaviors will form the basis for communication also for highly automated HGV-VRU interaction. However, it might also be beneficial to use additional eHMI to compensate for the loss of more social driver-centric cues or to signal other types of information. While controlled experiments can be used to gather such initial insights, deeper understanding of highly automated HGV-VRU interactions will also require naturalistic studies. Copyright © 2022 Fabricius, Habibovic, Rizgary, Andersson and Wärnestål.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
automated driving system (ADS), cyclist, heavy goods vehicle (HGV), interaction, pedestrian, truck, vulnerable road user (VRU)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59003 (URN)10.3389/frobt.2022.818019 (DOI)2-s2.0-85127146955 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: 2019-05901; Funding text 1: This research was partly funded by the Swedish innovation agency VINNOVA?s Strategic vehicle research and innovation (FFI) program, project ?External interaction principles for creating trust in heavy automated vehicles? (ref 2019-05901).; Funding text 2: This research was partly funded by the Swedish innovation agency VINNOVA’s Strategic vehicle research and innovation (FFI) program, project “External interaction principles for creating trust in heavy automated vehicles” (ref 2019-05901).

Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Söderman, M., Andersson, J. & Habibovic, A. (2022). Use cases and high-level requirements for safe interactions between automated delivery vehicles and human operators in a terminal.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use cases and high-level requirements for safe interactions between automated delivery vehicles and human operators in a terminal
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Small electric Autonomous Delivery Vehicles (ADV) can play an important role in future logistic chains under the last mile deliveries. In terminals where ADV are loaded with goods it is important that the interactions between the ADVS and the goods handling personnel is safe. Two workshops with developers of self-driving vehicles, researchers in the area of human-machine interaction and goods handling personnel form Postnord were conducted to identify challenges, needs and requirements regarding the design of ADV and the terminals för ADV. Due to COVID19, the workshops were carried out online and a video was shown to the participants demonstrating an ADV operating in a location representing a terminal. The two main objectives for this study were to gain understanding of the interactions between the ADV and human operators in the terminal and to identify high-level functional requirements for safe and efficient deployment of ADVs in terminals. The identified use cases related to (i) the ADV’s operations in the terminal, from entering to leaving the terminal and (ii) use cases where human operators interacted with the ADV, e.g. for loading/unloading goods. For each use case a high-level functional requirement was formulated. Human operators will most likely have important roles in delivery chains with ADV, such as loading and unloading of goods, as well as managing problems the ADV cannot solve. Consequently, how to design the human - ADV interactions will be critical from safety and efficiency points of view.

Publisher
p. 19
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2022:131
Keywords
Automated delivery vehicles, Human – ADV interactions, Use cases, High-level functional requirements
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-62049 (URN)978-91-89757-20-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-12-30 Created: 2022-12-30 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Ranjbar, P., Krishnakumari, P. K., Andersson, J. & Klingegård, M. (2022). Vibrotactile guidance for trips with autonomous vehicles for persons with blindness, deafblindness, and deafness. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 15, Article ID 100630.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vibrotactile guidance for trips with autonomous vehicles for persons with blindness, deafblindness, and deafness
2022 (English)In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 15, article id 100630Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles are becoming a reality with great potential. However, persons with blindness, deafblindness, and deafness, who usually receive information and guidance from the driver, could miss information when travelling in an autonomous car. In this case study, 15 people with hearing and vision impairments explore and compare trips with and without vibrotactile guidance (using Ready-Ride or Ready-Move) in a simulated autonomous vehicle in real traffic (using a Wizard-of-Oz method). The study investigated if vibrotactile aid could enable persons with blindness, deafblindness, and deafness to use autonomous vehicles. Different phases of a trip (before, during, and after) were analysed. The study shows that people with functional impairments such as blindness, deafblindness, and deafness can perform trips independently if given information adapted to their needs through auditory, tactile, or visual information channels. It would be difficult for the target groups to travel without any additional communication aid, such as a vibrotactile guidance aid for all phases of the trip, especially for those with blindness. In all rides with the simulated autonomous car (Wizard-of-Oz set up) without vibrotactile guidance, the driver or assistant (in at least one phase of the trip) had to intervene for the research participants with blindness to complete the trip and continue the study. The study also highlights the usability of the vibrotactile guidance aid and identifies areas in need of improvement.

Keywords
Autonomous vehicle, Self-driving cars, Vibrotactile guidance, Blindness, Deafness, Deafblindness
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-59354 (URN)10.1016/j.trip.2022.100630 (DOI)
Note

This research was funded by the Vinnova Strategic Innovation Pro-gram Drive Sweden (grant no.: 2018-03989) with co-funding from Västtrafik, the Region Västra Götaland, Norconsult Astando AB, Par-iception, and Synskadades Riksförbund Göteborg.

Available from: 2022-06-17 Created: 2022-06-17 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Voronov, A., Andersson, J. & Englund, C. (2021). Cut-ins in Truck Platoons: Modeling Loss of Fuel Savings. In: Towards Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Highways: . Paper presented at EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing (pp. 11-26). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cut-ins in Truck Platoons: Modeling Loss of Fuel Savings
2021 (English)In: Towards Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Highways, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, p. 11-26Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Reducing fuel consumption is one of the major benefits of platooning. While introducing platooning in mixed traffic, surrounding traffic will interfere with the platoon, risking a loss in fuel savings. In this work, a method for estimating potential fuel loss due to cut-ins in platoons is presented. Based on interviews with truck drivers with experience from platooning, and naturalistic data from previous research, we estimate the potential loss of fuel savings due to cut-ins and compare two scenarios with different amounts of traffic. The results show that platoons spend as much as 20% of time in cut-ins on typical European roads, reducing fuel savings in platooning from 13% down to 10%. Consequently, avoiding cut-ins has a positive environmental effect worth considering. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021
Keywords
Fuel economy, Truck drivers, Trucks, Amounts of traffics, Fuel savings, Mixed traffic, Potential loss, Truck platoons, Fuels
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-54704 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-66042-0_2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85108413163 (Scopus ID)
Conference
EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing
Note

Export Date: 29 June 2021; Book Chapter; Correspondence Address: Englund, C.; Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research (CAISR), Sweden; email: cristofer.englund@ri.se; Funding text 1: This project was funded by Strategic Innovation Program Drive Sweden.

Available from: 2021-06-30 Created: 2021-06-30 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Habibovic, A. & Rizgary, D. (2021). First encounter effects in testing of highly automated vehicles during two experimental occasions – The need for recurrent testing. it - Information Technology, 63(2), 99-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First encounter effects in testing of highly automated vehicles during two experimental occasions – The need for recurrent testing
2021 (English)In: it - Information Technology, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52938 (URN)10.1515/itit-2020-0023 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-04-19 Created: 2021-04-19 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Klingegård, M., Andersson, J., Habibovic, A., Nilsson, E. & Rydström, A. (2020). Drivers’ ability to engage in a non-driving related task while in automated driving mode in real traffic. IEEE Access, 8, 221654-221668
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers’ ability to engage in a non-driving related task while in automated driving mode in real traffic
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2020 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 221654-221668Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Engaging in non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) while driving can be considered distracting and safety detrimental. However, with the introduction of highly automated driving systems that relieve drivers from driving, more NDRTs will be feasible. In fact, many car manufacturers emphasize that one of the main advantages with automated cars is that it “frees up time” for other activities while on the move. This paper investigates how well drivers are able to engage in an NDRT while in automated driving mode (i.e., SAE Level 4) in real traffic, via a Wizard of Oz platform. The NDRT was designed to be visually and cognitively demanding and require manual interaction. The results show that the drivers’ attention to a great extent shifted from the road ahead towards the NDRT. Participants could perform the NDRT equally well as when in an office (e.g. correct answers, time to completion), showing that the performance did not deteriorate when in the automated vehicle. Yet, many participants indicated that they noted and reacted to environmental changes and sudden changes in vehicle motion. Participants were also surprised by their own ability to, with ease, disconnect from driving. The presented study extends previous research by identifying that drivers to a high extent are able to engage in an NDTR while in automated mode in real traffic. This is promising for future of automated cars ability to “free up time” and enable drivers to engage in non-driving related activities.

Keywords
Vehicles, Task analysis, Automation, Automobiles, Roads, Visualization, Manuals, Automated Driving, Driver behavior, Driver experience, Non-driving related task, Secondary task
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51013 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3043428 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-12-17 Created: 2020-12-17 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J. (2020). SEBRA Sensor based awareness for bicyclists: FINAL REPORT.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SEBRA Sensor based awareness for bicyclists: FINAL REPORT
2020 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall trend in Sweden is that the number of fatalities and severely injured in traffic is constantly decreasing. However, bicyclists are the group of road-users that often suffer the most severe injuries when involved in accidents.

In this project we want to investigate if a radar mounted on bicycles can help bicycle riders to get better situational awareness and thereby avoid getting into dangerous situations.

For active safety in vehicles, the state of art integrates radar-, lidar-, and camera-based sensors to create awareness for the vehicle and driver. To apply this kind of system on a bicycle would be unfeasible, since the cost would in some cases be as much as the entire bicycle. In this project we study and propose a low-cost sensor solution that improves traffic safety for bicycles that consist of only one of these sensors - the radar - it is the cheapest and most robust solution.

The project first identified the most relevant use-cases and in conjunction to this, identify a business model that can make the safety system attractive for end-users. 

 Secondly, a radarbased safety system for bicycles is developed with both sensor and human interface.

Finally,the system is evaluated in relevant traffic situations.

The SEBRA project aims for the following research questions:

- RQ1: What safety issues can be addressed by a radar-based safety system mounted onbicycles?

- RQ2: What performance requirements (field-of-view, computational capacity, power consumption, etc.) should such a system fulfil?

- RQ3: How should the interaction with the bicyclists be designed to give a high level of safety and user experience?

- RQ4: How can incentives and business models be developed to create a viable utility device for bicycles?

Within the scope of Open Research at AstaZero, we plan to simulate the selected scenarios from literature in the test track environment to finalize the answer for RQ1 and build answerfor RQ2. The tests also contribute initial insights for RQ3 answer.

Publisher
p. 19
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-52950 (URN)
Note

A-0037 SEBRA, Final report to AstaZero Openresearch

Available from: 2021-04-19 Created: 2021-04-19 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6307-1960

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