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Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Dahlbom, S. & Mallin, T. (2024). A holistic approach on the transition to fluorine free firefighting foams : Firefighting performance and PFAS decontamination. In: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Nordic Fire & Safety: . Paper presented at Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2024 in Lund, Sweden. 18-19 June, 2024 (pp. 137). RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A holistic approach on the transition to fluorine free firefighting foams : Firefighting performance and PFAS decontamination
2024 (English)In: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Nordic Fire & Safety, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2024, p. 137-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2024
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2024:149
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-73669 (URN)10.23699/yns7-3n56 (DOI)978-91-89971-08-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2024 in Lund, Sweden. 18-19 June, 2024
Available from: 2024-06-25 Created: 2024-06-25 Last updated: 2024-06-25Bibliographically approved
Dahlbom, S., Bjarnemark, F., Nguyen, B., Petronis, S. & Mallin, T. (2024). Analysis of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) extraction from contaminated firefighting materials: Effects of cleaning agent, temperature, and chain-length dependencies. Emerging Contaminants, 10(3), 100335-100335, Article ID 100335.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) extraction from contaminated firefighting materials: Effects of cleaning agent, temperature, and chain-length dependencies
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2024 (English)In: Emerging Contaminants, ISSN 2405-6650, E-ISSN 2405-6642, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 100335-100335, article id 100335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This investigation delves into the extraction dynamics of 22 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances from PFAS contaminated firefighting materials. Two distinct test sets were executed: one contrasting a commercial product with water following an elaborate decontamination procedure, and the other assessing seven washing agents on materials from firefighting installations, with one agent examined at 22 °C and 50 °C. A general tendency for improved desorption at the higher temperature was observed. Furthermore, a discernible influence of the cleaning agent's pH on the extraction of specific PFAS species was observed, elucidating the role of chemical environment in the extraction process. PFAS rebound was studied for a period of up to 157 days, this unveiled a gradual escalation in PFAS22 levels, indicative of a protracted desorption mechanism. Intriguingly, PFAS with abbreviated carbon chains (C4–C6) exhibit superior desorption efficiency compared to their elongated congeners, suggesting a chain-length-dependent decontamination potential. A comparative scrutiny between a commercially available cleaning product, featuring multiple washing and flushing steps, and a water-only treatment regimen underscores the potential efficacy of the former. This exhaustive investigation furnishes nuanced insights into PFAS extraction complexities, offering a foundation for informed decontamination strategies

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72463 (URN)10.1016/j.emcon.2024.100335 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Defence Materiel AdministrationSwedish Armed Forces
Note

We express gratitude to the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and the Swedish Armed Forces for their financial support in the Testbed PFAS project

Available from: 2024-04-02 Created: 2024-04-02 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Grahn, D., Hjort, A., Jivén, K., Forsström, E., Gehandler, J. & Dahlbom, S. (2024). Förnybar flytande biogas (LBG) till sjöfart i praktiken.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förnybar flytande biogas (LBG) till sjöfart i praktiken
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2024 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Reducing the environmental and climate impact of shipping propelled by liquefied natural gas (LNG) requires the introduction of alternative fuels such as liquid biogas/biomethane (LBG) (Jivén et al., 2022). Today, only a small part of the biomethane produced in Sweden is liquefied into LBG and an even smaller part is used as fuel for shipping. The price and availability of biogas is governed by supply and demand in an international market where shipping, industry and heavy trucks demand biogas. The biogas then needs to be processed into upgraded biogas (biomethane) or LBG quality in order to be transported and used in the respective sectors inside and outside of Sweden. The trend is for a larger proportion of biogas to be liquefied into LBG. The market has thus gone from a local market, where biogas was produced in the city's wastewater treatment plant and the city buses ran on biogas, to an international market where biogas often is transported in the same way as fossil gas and marketed using the fossil gas together with certificates. The project "Renewable liquid biogas (LBG) for shipping in practice" was carried out by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and RISE in 2023 together with stakeholders from the shipping sector, ports and industry organizations for biogas. The project has studied the conditions required to make LBG available to shipping in practice at Swedish ports. The study shows that the major obstacles to an established use of LBG in the shipping sector in Sweden today are pricing/willingness to pay that is affected by international market prices, lack of suitable logistical solutions as well as the absence of the piece of the puzzle that is the business model and cooperation needed to make available the large volumes of biogas that shipping may demand. The stakeholders in the project estimate their total need of biogas to 3 TWh in a short term, and 10 TWh in a longer term. The project has identified a number of conclusions and recommendations for future work, including that the potential for biogas is large and untapped, but that new solutions for the distribution and logistics of LBG are needed. There is a clear interest from maritime actors as they see biogas as a strategic solution and the dialog between actors in the industry remains important. A change in the tax system could be needed so that more actors can use the green gas principle for LBG. In addition, a functioning "marketplace" is needed, which simplifies for sellers and buyers of LBG, and agreements/contracts are needed that are longterm and to a greater extent based on the costs of producing and providing LBG.

Publisher
p. 59
Series
LIGHTHOUSE-rapport
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72316 (URN)
Note

En förstudie utförd inom Trafikverkets branschprogramHållbar sjöfart som drivs av Lighthouse. I samarbete medGöteborgs Hamn, Gävle Hamn, Terntank, Furetank, Biogas Syd, Biogas Sydost, Energigas Sverige, Wallenius Sol och Wallenius Marine.

Available from: 2024-03-11 Created: 2024-03-11 Last updated: 2024-03-11Bibliographically approved
Gehandler, J., Dahlbom, S. & Wannerberg, P. (2024). Visualization of risks by the use of extended reality. In: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Nordic Fire & Safety: . Paper presented at Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2024 in Lund, Sweden. 18-19 June, 2024 (pp. 101). RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualization of risks by the use of extended reality
2024 (English)In: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Nordic Fire & Safety, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2024, p. 101-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 2024
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2024:49
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-73660 (URN)10.23699/yns7-3n56 (DOI)978-91-89971-08-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2024 in Lund, Sweden. 18-19 June, 2024
Available from: 2024-06-24 Created: 2024-06-24 Last updated: 2024-06-28Bibliographically approved
Dahlbom, S., Anerud, E., Lönnermark, A. & Pushp, M. (2023). A theoretical evaluation of the impact of the type of reaction on heat production and material losses in biomass piles. Fire and Materials, 11(12), 2693
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A theoretical evaluation of the impact of the type of reaction on heat production and material losses in biomass piles
2023 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 2693-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Self-heating during storage of biomass in piles causes material losses, leads to emissions to air, and poses a risk of fire. There are different techniques to assess a biomass material's propensity for self-heating, some of these are briefly reviewed. One of these techniques is isothermal calorimetry, which measures thermal power from materials and produces time-resolved curves. A recently developed and published test standard, ISO 20049-1:2020, describes how the self-heating of pelletized biofuels can be determined by means of isothermal calorimetry and how thermal power and the total heat produced during the test should be measured by isothermal calorimetry. This paper supports interpretation of the result obtained by isothermal calorimetry; the mentioned standard provides examples of peak thermal power and total heat but does not provide any assistance on how the result from isothermal measurements should be interpreted or how the result from measurements on different samples could be compared. This paper addresses the impact of different types of reactions, peak thermal power, total heat released (heat of reaction), activation energy, heat conductivity, and pile size on the temperature development in a generic pile of biomass. This paper addresses important parameters when the result from isothermal calorimetry is evaluated. The most important parameter, with respect to temperature development in large piles, was found to be the total heat released. It was also proposed that safe storage times, that is, the time until a run-away of the temperature in the pile, could be ranked based on the time to the peak thermal power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2023
Keywords
biomaterial, isothermal calorimetry, reactivity, self-heating, storage
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64847 (URN)10.1002/fam.3153 (DOI)2-s2.0-85148771749 (Scopus ID)
Funder
AFA InsuranceSwedish Energy Agency
Note

Funders: AFA Försäkring, Energimyndigheten

Available from: 2023-05-19 Created: 2023-05-19 Last updated: 2024-06-07Bibliographically approved
Kumlin, H., Lönnermark, A., Dahlbom, S., Blomqvist, P. & Mallin, T. (2023). Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker
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2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 93
Series
Avfall Sverige ; 2023:15
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67496 (URN)
Available from: 2023-10-05 Created: 2023-10-05 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Dahlbom, S., Sanfridson, M. & Sjöblom, T. (2023). Evaluation of Detection Principles and Challenges in Early Detection of Thermal Runaway in Batteries.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Detection Principles and Challenges in Early Detection of Thermal Runaway in Batteries
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The amount of battery electrical vehicles (BEVs) carried as cargo on ro-ro ships is increasing. The possibility of thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery makes BEVs a different fire risk compared to internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). One of the challenges that arise is how to detect a thermal runaway early. Current detection systems in ro-ro spaces generally consist of smoke and/or heat detection. To identify potential techniques and challenges for detection of a thermal runaway, as early as possible, tests with batteries and detectors are needed. Tests with one battery cell were performed inside an ISO container (with almost negligible ventilation) as well as in an open room with moderate ventilation (14 air changes per hour). Point-type detectors (two smoke and heat detectors, one CO detector, and one LEL detector), thermal imaging, video analytics, and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) were evaluated in the tests. A total of 14 tests were conducted. The detectors were evaluated in different positions relative to the battery cell and comparative tests with wood-sticks were performed to investigate the detectors’ ability to detect a more conventional source of fire. Based on the results, it can be concluded that early detection of thermal runaway in batteries is possible in principle. However, detection is a matter of circumstances e.g., ventilation, gas/smoke production and the location of the detector(s). The result indicates that detection in a small and confined space is relatively manageable, but detection in a large and open space could be more of a challenge. If the gas/smoke is cooled down it may sink and spread along the floor/deck, instead of rising and spreading along the ceiling. This would be a challenge with current smoke detectors installed in the ceiling. Shielding may be a problem, especially with LIDAR and thermal imaging. Future research should address full-scale tests, and it is recommended to include Optical Gas Imaging (OGI) as a mean of detection.

Publisher
p. 37
Series
LASHFIRE Internal Report IR09.15
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-67747 (URN)
Note

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 814975. 

Horizon H2020-MG-2018-Two-Stages. Starting date: 2019-09-01 Duration: 48 months. MG-2.2-2018: Marine Accident Response, Subtopic C

Available from: 2023-11-13 Created: 2023-11-13 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, S., Dahlbom, S. & Pramanik, R. (2023). LASH FIRE : Consolidation of performance assessment and solutions' impact on safety: Deliverable D04.10.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LASH FIRE : Consolidation of performance assessment and solutions' impact on safety: Deliverable D04.10
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There have been a number of fires on board ro-ro ships with severe consequences the last decades, several which have started in a ro-ro space. To prevent and mitigate future fire accidents, cost-effective solutions to improve ships’ abilities to independently handle a fire starting in a ro-ro space are needed. Within the LASH FIRE project, innovative solutions aimed at strengthening the independent fire protection of ro-ro ships have been developed and demonstrated. These solutions are developed to strengthen all parts of the fire protection chain, from ignition prevention all the way to evacuation. This deliverable, D04.10, presents an overview of the testing and demonstration of the solutions. Through this deliverable, external parties, such as industry actors, will have a compilation of the evaluation and its outcome for the different solutions that have been developed and demonstrated within LASH FIRE.

Publisher
p. 70
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72374 (URN)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 814975
Note

Work Package: WP04 – Formal safety assessment. Horizon 2020: 814975

Available from: 2024-03-22 Created: 2024-03-22 Last updated: 2024-03-22Bibliographically approved
Dahlbom, S. & Hulteberg, C. (2023). Prediction of the self-ignition temperature in lagging fires by means of isothermal calorimetry. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 83, 105010-105010, Article ID 105010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of the self-ignition temperature in lagging fires by means of isothermal calorimetry
2023 (English)In: Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, ISSN 0950-4230, E-ISSN 1873-3352, Vol. 83, p. 105010-105010, article id 105010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Under certain circumstances, contamination of a porous insulation material by a combustible liquid may result in a lagging/insulation fire. In the current study, a method based on isothermal calorimetry and modelling to estimate the risk of a lagging fire, or a maximum insulation thickness for a certain system temperature, is presented. The studied system was a combination of mineral wool and rapeseed oil. Full-scale tests were performed to determine suitable ignition criteria and to validate the results from the isothermal calorimetry tests and modelling. We contaminated the lagging using two methods – a direct method and a solvent method. These methods were evaluated in the full-scale tests. The solvent method resulted in more repeatable results than the direct method, where the contaminant was poured on the insulation. Using the calorimetric measurements, we estimated the parameters for the kinetic equation. This result was used to estimate the self-ignition temperature of contaminated lagging installed on a pipe. We found that a temperature increase of 40 °C was a reasonable ignition criterion when modelling.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64118 (URN)10.1016/j.jlp.2023.105010 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-03-01 Created: 2023-03-01 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Dahlbom, S., Mallin, T. & Bobert, M. (2022). Fire Test Performance of Eleven PFAS-Free Class B Firefighting Foams Varying Fuels, Admixture, Water Types and Foam Generation Techniques. Fire technology, 58(3), 1639-1665
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire Test Performance of Eleven PFAS-Free Class B Firefighting Foams Varying Fuels, Admixture, Water Types and Foam Generation Techniques
2022 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 1639-1665Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The firefighting performance of eleven PFAS-free firefighting foams was evaluated using different fuels (Jet A1, commercial heptane and diesel) and types of water (freshwater and synthetic sea water). Moreover, different firefighting foam generation techniques and application methods were evaluated. The firefighting foams were generated as aspirated foams or as compressed air foams (CAFs). The results for CAF showed a higher performance, with respect to extinction time and burn-back resistance, compared to the foam generated using a UNI 86 nozzle. The CAF was not optimised, indicating a further potential of this foam generation technique. The results indicate that the time to fire knockdown decreases with decreasing foam viscosity. The heat flux was shown to be small, although the entire fuel surface was involved in the fire. The tests showed a dependence on fuel type; different products performed differently depending on the fuel. Tests using sea water showed that addition of salt to the foam solution generally prolonged the extinction time, although for one of the firefighting foams a shorter extinction time was observed. Out of the eleven evaluated PFAS-free products there was no product that outperformed the rest. None of the products in the study met the fire test performance requirements in all the referenced standards. Instead, the products seem to have different niches where they perform best e.g., with different types of fuel or water.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-58576 (URN)10.1007/s10694-022-01213-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85124406875 (Scopus ID)
Note

Open access funding provided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. This research has been conducted within the project Testbed PFAS and is funded by the Swedish Fortifications Agency, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, the Swedish Armed Forces and RISE. Firefighting foams were provided by the different firefighting foam manufacturers.

Available from: 2022-02-21 Created: 2022-02-21 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9432-0264

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