Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Abdelaziz, O., Capanema, E., Ajao, O., Kristensen, T., Hosseinaei, O., Benali, M. & Hulteberg, C. (2023). A Rapid and Tunable Approach for the Fractionation of Technical Kraft Lignin. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 99, 67-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Rapid and Tunable Approach for the Fractionation of Technical Kraft Lignin
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 99, p. 67-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reducing the heterogeneity of technical lignin is essential to obtain predictable and high-performance polymeric materials that are suitable for high-value applications. Organic solvents with different polarities and solubilities can be used to fractionate lignin and reduce the complexity and diversity of its chemical structure. Among the various solvents and solvent mixtures, acetone-water mixtures offer an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly means of lignin fractionation. In the present study, temperature-induced acetone-water fractionation was investigated to refine the properties of a technical softwood Kraft lignin, i.e., LignoBoost™ lignin. Relatively mild operating conditions were tested, namely, temperatures of 70-110°C and autogenous pressure. A factorial experimental design was developed using the Design-Expert® software, and three factors (temperature, time, and acetone concentration) were investigated. It was found that temperature-induced fractionation could increase lignin homogeneity and maintain high lignin solubilization with a short processing time (<1 h). It was also possible to tune the properties of the soluble lignin fraction (yield and weight-average molecular weight) based on the factorial models developed. The techno-economic evaluation confirmed the commercial viability of this fractionation process. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Italian Association of Chemical Engineering - AIDIC, 2023
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65691 (URN)10.3303/CET2399012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163461381 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, MISTRA (F2019/1822) within the framework of the research program STEPS – Sustainable Plastics and Transition Pathways at Lund University. Omar Abdelaziz acknowledges the Troëdsson Paper Engineering grant (P111639) supporting his research stay at the RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB. Marzouk Benali is grateful for financial support from the Program on Energy Research and Development (PERD-3A03-003) and the Forest Innovation Program of the Canadian Forest Service at Natural Resources Canada.

Available from: 2023-08-10 Created: 2023-08-10 Last updated: 2023-08-10Bibliographically approved
Tomani, P., Arkell, A., Capanema, E. & Hosseinaei, O. (2022). Learnings and Aspects on Kraft Lignin Separation and Valorisation. In: Atte Virtanen (Ed.), The 10th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: . Paper presented at Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (pp. 29-29). Helsinki
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learnings and Aspects on Kraft Lignin Separation and Valorisation
2022 (English)In: The 10th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference / [ed] Atte Virtanen, Helsinki, 2022, p. 29-29Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Process-integrated, continuous, separation of lignin from kraft pulp mills which results in a ligninwith low ash content (0.05-1 %) is relatively new technology compared to traditional kraft pulping subprocesses,like recovery boilers, lime kilns, white liquor preparation etc. The LignoBoost technology wasdemonstrated in 2007 and the first commercial full-scale process started in 2013, delivered to Domtarby Valmet. This means that this concept now has been in commercial scale operation for almost 10years. There is also an alternative commercialized concept available today from another supplier,NORAM International. The idea to integrate lignin separation into a kraft pulp mill is today quite provencommercial technology.This paper will discuss different learnings, experiences, from the early development of theLignoBoost process, which includes handling of the separated lignin followed by drying. The dustexplosion risk is relatively high for dry kraft lignin due to a high kst value – so the paper will also discussif there are opportunities to reduce this risk. The paper will also briefly discuss promising productsegments for kraft lignin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: , 2022
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61130 (URN)10.32040/2242-122X.2022.T409 (DOI)978-951-38-8772-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference
Available from: 2022-11-01 Created: 2022-11-01 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Capanema, E. & Balakshin, M. Y. (2021). Kinetics of the oxidative ammonolysis of lignin. In: What to Know about Lignin: (pp. 303-328). Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetics of the oxidative ammonolysis of lignin
2021 (English)In: What to Know about Lignin, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2021, p. 303-328Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effect of reaction variables on the oxidative ammonolysis of technical lignins was studied in the range of 0.4-0.8 M NH4OH, reaction temperature of 70 - 130°C, oxygen pressure of 0.5 - 1.2 MPa and pH 9- 12.7. The kinetics of nitrogen incorporation consists of two phases, both of which follow a pseudo-first order reaction law. The reaction is 1st and 0.5 order with respect to oxygen and NH4OH concentration, respectively. The effective activation energy of nitrogen incorporation is rather low, 33-43 kJ/mol. The dependence of the reaction rate on pH of the reaction solution goes through a maximum. Linear correlation between nitrogen incorporation and O-demethylation, CO2 formation, oxygen uptake as well as oxygen incorporation were observed. Structural analyses of the soluble N-modified lignins by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques showed only qualitative differences of the spectra obtained under different reaction conditions indicating that the reaction conditions do not affect the reaction pathways. A scheme of possible reaction mechanisms is postulated based on the experimental results. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2021
Keywords
Lignin, N-modified lignin, Oxidative ammonolysis, Reaction kinetics
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-55484 (URN)2-s2.0-85109243017 (Scopus ID)9781536192223 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-08-04 Created: 2021-08-04 Last updated: 2021-11-25Bibliographically approved
Balakshin, M. Y., Capanema, E., Sulaeva, I., Schlee, P., Huang, Z., Feng, M., . . . Rosenau, T. (2021). New Opportunities in the Valorization of Technical Lignins.. ChemSusChem, 14(4), 1016-1036
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Opportunities in the Valorization of Technical Lignins.
Show others...
2021 (English)In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 1016-1036Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sugar-based biorefineries have faced significant economic challenges. Biorefinery lignins are often classified as low-value products (fuel or low-cost chemical feedstock) mainly due to low lignin purities in the crude material. However, recent research has shown that biorefinery lignins have a great chance of being successfully used as high-value products, which in turn should result in an economy renaissance of the whole biorefinery idea. This critical review summarizes recent developments from our groups, along with the state-of-the-art in the valorization of technical lignins, with the focus on biorefinery lignins. A beneficial synergistic effect of lignin and cellulose mixtures used in different applications (wood adhesives, carbon fiber and nanofibers, thermoplastics) has been demonstrated. This phenomenon causes crude biorefinery lignins, which contain a significant amount of residual crystalline cellulose, to perform superior to high-purity lignins in certain applications. Where previously specific applications required high-purity and/or functionalized lignins with narrow molecular weight distributions, simple green processes for upgrading crude biorefinery lignin are suggested here as an alternative. These approaches can be easily combined with lignin micro-/nanoparticles (LMNP) production. The processes should also be cost-efficient compared to traditional lignin modifications. Biorefinery processes allow much greater flexibility in optimizing the lignin characteristics desirable for specific applications than traditional pulping processes. Such lignin engineering, at the same time, requires an efficient strategy capable of handling large datasets to find correlations between process variables, lignin structures and properties and finally their performance in different applications.

Keywords
Lignin, biorefinery, crystalline cellulose, lignin valorization, nanoparticles
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-51979 (URN)10.1002/cssc.202002553 (DOI)33285039 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-01-19 Created: 2021-01-19 Last updated: 2021-11-25Bibliographically approved
Balakshin, M., Capanema, E., Zhu, X., Sulaeva, I., Potthast, A., Rosenau, T. & Rojas, O. (2020). Spruce milled wood lignin: Linear, branched or cross-linked?. Green Chemistry, 22(13), 3985-4001
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spruce milled wood lignin: Linear, branched or cross-linked?
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 22, no 13, p. 3985-4001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The subject of lignin structure, critical for fundamental and practical reasons, is addressed in this study that includes a review of the methods applied to elucidate macromolecular branching. The recently available approaches for determination of the absolute molecular mass of spruce milled wood lignin (MWL) along with the quantification of terminal groups clearly indicate that MWL is significantly branched and cross-linked (with ∼36% lignin units partaking in these linkages). Results from independent methods imply that about half of the branching and crosslinking linkages involve aromatic rings, predominantly 5-5′ etherified units; meanwhile, a significant number of linkages are located in the side chains. Quantitative 13C NMR analyses suggest that the branches involve different aliphatic ether (alkyl-O-alkyl) types at the α- and γ-positions of the side chain, with intact β-O-4 linkages. While the exact structures of these moieties require further investigation, our results point to the fact that conventional lignification theory disagrees with the presence of such key moieties in softwood MWL and the observed high degree of branching/crosslinking. Potential reasons for the noted discrepancies are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020
Keywords
Lignin, Aliphatic ethers, Aromatic rings, Degree of branching, Lignin structure, Lignin units, Milled wood lignin, Side-chains, Terminal groups, Wood, Chains, Joints, Lignins, Methods, Rings, Sides, Structures
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45615 (URN)10.1039/d0gc00926a (DOI)2-s2.0-85087700987 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Academy of Finland, 318891, 318890; Funding text 1: This is supported by detailed analysis of 2D NMR spectra of spruce MWL. There are some signals which surprisingly have not been considered until now in spite of the extensive work on the characterization of native lignins. We assign these signals based on the data available in the literature33–40 and ChemDraw modeling of some hypothetical moieties when the literature data are lacking. This analysis indicates that significant signal overlap is plausible even in the 2D spectrum (Fig. 8). γ-Methylene (CH2) signals of potential γ-ether moieties; Funding text 2: The authors are grateful to Dr J. Ralph for valuable discussion. We are also grateful for support by the Academy of Finland’s Flagship Programme under Projects No. 318890 and 318891 (Competence Center for Materials Bioeconomy, FinnCERES) and the Austrian Biorefinery Center Tulln (ABCT).

Available from: 2020-08-13 Created: 2020-08-13 Last updated: 2021-11-25Bibliographically approved
Baker, D., Hosseinaei, O., Sedin, M., Echardt, L. & Capanema, E. (2019). Lignin-based carbon fiber: effect of softwood kraft lignin separation method on multifilament melt-spinning performance and conversion. In: 20th International symposium on wood, fiber, and pulping chemistry: . Paper presented at 20th International symposium on wood, fiber, and pulping chemistry, 9-11 September 2019, Tokyo.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin-based carbon fiber: effect of softwood kraft lignin separation method on multifilament melt-spinning performance and conversion
Show others...
2019 (English)In: 20th International symposium on wood, fiber, and pulping chemistry, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A reference lignin separated from an industrial softwood kraft black liquor via an improved LignoBoost process was compared to four other lignins derived from the same liquor. The four lignins were produced by using a) pH-fractionation within the LignoBoost process, b) ultrafiltration of black liquor prior to the LignoBoost process, and c) solvent leaching of the reference lignin using methanol and d) ethanol.Lignin compositional characteristics and thermal properties were compared, and monofilament extrusion used to assess their potential for successful melt spinning at the 24 filament scale. The lignin prepared by ethanol leaching of the reference lignin was found to be most appropriate for potential pilot scale fibre production. This was owing to a high purity, lower comparative glass transition temperature (Tg), and good spinning performance.Thermal pretreatments of the ethanol leached lignin gave a selection of enhanced lignins which were characterized for comparison, and melt spun on pilot multifilament equipment. The enhanced lignins could be continuously melt spun giving filaments with diameters as low as 10 μm and with minimal defects. Conversion of selected filaments provided carbon fibres with a tensile strength of 1259 ± 159 MPa, tensile modulus of 67 ± 3 GPa and diameter of 7.3 ± 0.5 μm.

Keywords
lignin, carbon fibre, lignoboost, ultrafiltration, black liquor, leaching, methanol, ethanol, softwood, kraft lignin, melt spinning
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-40762 (URN)
Conference
20th International symposium on wood, fiber, and pulping chemistry, 9-11 September 2019, Tokyo
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 667501
Available from: 2019-11-19 Created: 2019-11-19 Last updated: 2021-11-25Bibliographically approved
Balakshin, M., Capanema, E., Huang, Z., Sulaeva, I., Rojas, O., Feng, M., . . . Potthast, A. (2018). Recent achievement in the valorization of technical lignins. In: Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica (Ed.), The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings: . Paper presented at The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 22-25 Oct. 2018 (pp. 151-156). Espoo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent achievement in the valorization of technical lignins
Show others...
2018 (English)In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo, 2018, p. 151-156Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Espoo: , 2018
Series
VTT Technology, ISSN 2242-1211 ; 340
Keywords
biorefinery, lignin, high-value products, application, valorization
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-36364 (URN)978-951-38-8672-1 (ISBN)
Conference
The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 22-25 Oct. 2018
Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2021-11-25Bibliographically approved
Capanema, E. & Balakshin, M. (2017). Application of Omno polymers in PF wood adhesives. In: 19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil: . Paper presented at 19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil (pp. 65-69).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Omno polymers in PF wood adhesives
2017 (English)In: 19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil, 2017, p. 65-69Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Plantrose® technology is a promising biorefinery method which enables the production of C5 and C6 sugars from different lignocellulosics using sub- and supercritical water in a two-step process. The lignin rich solids after carbohydrate hydrolysis containing various amounts of residual cellulose are trademarked as OmnoTM polymers. The reactivity and bonding performance of different Omno polymers in direct partial substitution of phenol-formaldehyde adhesive resins (PF) for the manufacture of oriented strand board (OSB) and softwood plywood were evaluated by a fast bench screening test using the Automatic Bond Evaluation System (ABES) and by pilot trials on the production and testing of wood panels. The results showed that about 1/3 of commercial glues could be successfully substituted by Omno polymers without any significant drop in the adhesive reactivity and properties of the resulting wood panels. Selected Omno polymers had superior performance as compared to high-purity pulping lignins (Kraft, soda and organosolv) due to a positive effect of the residual cellulose in the Omnopolymers on the adhesive performance. Hardwood lignins had no disadvantages as compared to various softwood lignins, in strict contrast to the current dogma.

Keywords
biorefinery, lignin, phenol formaldehyde, wood adhesive, cellulose, resin
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33012 (URN)
Conference
19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil
Available from: 2018-01-10 Created: 2018-01-10 Last updated: 2021-11-25Bibliographically approved
Balakshin, M. & Capanema, E. (2017). New opportunities in the valorization of technical lignins. In: 19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil: . Paper presented at 19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil (pp. 178-182).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New opportunities in the valorization of technical lignins
2017 (English)In: 19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil, 2017, p. 178-182Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Commercialization of lignins for high-value products should dramatically improve the biorefinery economy and help the growing industry to overcome current economical challenges. However, this requires lignin engineering to obtain products with optimized characteristics for specific applications. This paper reviews important issues of lignin engineering, such as developments in lignin structural analysis, application of small-scale high throughput methods to evaluate lignin performance as well as new achievements in valorization of biorefinery lignins (lignin-cellulose synergism, green and cost efficient methods to upgrade crude biorefinery lignins). These recent developments allow a reconsideration of biorefinery lignins as highvalue products for different applications.

Keywords
biorefinery, lignin, characterisation, nuclear magnetic resonance, spectroscopy
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-33025 (URN)
Conference
19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil
Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2021-11-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6495-0492

Search in DiVA

Show all publications