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Sun, P., Bisschop, R., Niu, H. & Huang, X. (2020). A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles. Fire technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles
2020 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Over the last decade, the electric vehicle (EV) has significantly changed the car industry globally, driven by the fast development of Li-ion battery technology. However, the fire risk and hazard associated with this type of high-energy battery has become a major safety concern for EVs. This review focuses on the latest fire-safety issues of EVs related to thermal runaway and fire in Li-ion batteries. Thermal runaway or fire can occur as a result of extreme abuse conditions that may be the result of the faulty operation or traffic accidents. Failure of the battery may then be accompanied by the release of toxic gas, fire, jet flames, and explosion. This paper is devoted to reviewing the battery fire in battery EVs, hybrid EVs, and electric buses to provide a qualitative understanding of the fire risk and hazards associated with battery powered EVs. In addition, important battery fire characteristics involved in various EV fire scenarios, obtained through testing, are analysed. The tested peak heat release rate (PHHR in MW) varies with the energy capacity of LIBs (EB in Wh) crossing different scales as PHRR=2EB0.6. For the full-scale EV fire test, limited data have revealed that the heat release and hazard of an EV fire are comparable to that of a fossil-fuelled vehicle fire. Once the onboard battery involved in fire, there is a greater difficulty in suppressing EV fires, because the burning battery pack inside is inaccessible to externally applied suppressant and can re-ignite without sufficient cooling. As a result, an excessive amount of suppression agent is needed to cool the battery, extinguish the fire, and prevent reignition. By addressing these concerns, this review aims to aid researchers and industries working with batteries, EVs and fire safety engineering, to encourage active research collaborations, and attract future research and development on improving the overall safety of future EVs. Only then will society achieve the same comfort level for EVs as they have for conventional vehicles. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Electric vehicle, Fire incidents, Fire suppression, Fire tests, Heat release rate, Li-ion battery, Accident prevention, Automotive industry, Battery Pack, Electric vehicles, Explosions, Fire protection, Fires, Hazards, Ions, Vehicles, Fire safety engineering, Heat Release Rate (HRR), On-board batteries, Peak heat release rates, Research and development, Research collaborations, Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44931 (URN)10.1007/s10694-019-00944-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85078626486 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Energimyndigheten, 2017-014026; Funding details: G-YBZ1; Funding details: 2015B010118001; Funding details: 25205519; Funding text 1: The authors (PS and XH) would like to thank the support from HK Research Grant Council through the Early Career Scheme (25205519) and HK PolyU through the Central Research Grant (G-YBZ1). RB was funded by the Strategic vehicle research and innovation program FFI through the Swedish Energy Agency (No. 2017-014026). HN is supported by the Guangdong Technology Fund (2015B010118001). A EV \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$A_{EV}$$\end{document} EV floor area (m 2 ) A f \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$A_{f}$$\end{document} Area of fuel or fire (m 2 ) Δ H c \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\Delta H_{c}$$\end{document} Heat of combustion (MJ/kg) m ˙ \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\dot{m}$$\end{document} Burning rate (kg/s) m ˙ ′ ′ \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\dot{m}^{''}$$\end{document} Burning flux (kg/m 2 s) q ˙ ′ ′ \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\dot{q}^{''}$$\end{document} Heat flux (kW/m 2 ) Q Heat release from fire (J) T Temperature (°C) V Voltage (V) η \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\eta$$\end{document} Combustion efficiency (%)

Available from: 2020-05-05 Created: 2020-05-05 Last updated: 2020-05-12Bibliographically approved
Sun, P., Bisschop, R., Niu, H. & Huang, X. (2020). Correction:: A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles (Fire Technology, (2020), 10.1007/s10694-019-00944-3). Fire technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correction:: A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles (Fire Technology, (2020), 10.1007/s10694-019-00944-3)
2020 (English)In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The original version of this article unfortunately contained an incorrect unit of PHRR for Eq. (3), which appears in abstract and conclusion, and an incorrect version of Fig. 23. (Figure presented

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-43954 (URN)10.1007/s10694-020-00958-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85078950258 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-19 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
Bisschop, R., Willstrand, O., Amon, F. & Rosenggren, M. (2019). Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues to increase around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe, their involvement in traffic accidents and fire incidents is likely to rise. This can damage the lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and responders as well as those involved in post-crash operations. There are many different types of lithium-ion batteries, with different packaging and chemistries but also variations in how they are integrated into modern vehicles. To use lithium-ion batteries safely means to keep the cells within a defined voltage and temperature window. These limits can be exceeded as a result of crash or fault conditions. This report provides background information regarding lithium-ion batteries and battery pack integration in vehicles. Fire hazards are identified and means for preventing and controlling them are presented. The possibility of fixed fire suppression and detection systems in electric vehicles is discussed.

Publisher
p. 107
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:50
Keywords
Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electric Vehicles, Fire Risks, Post-Crash Handling, Risk Management, Fire Safety
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38873 (URN)978-91-88907-78-3 (ISBN)
Note

UPDATED VERSION:The report/full text has been updated 2019-09-23 according to following addition/clarification at the last paragraph on page 39:

Updated version published 2019-09-23, page 39: ”To mitigate this risk EVs must pass fire resistance testing, i.e. UNECE Reg. No. 100[144].  The  amount  of  time in which  the  battery  pack  is  exposed  to  external  flames  is  2 minutes. This test is similar to the test conducted on gasoline tanks. In the test the size of the fire is determined by the geometry of the battery or tank respectively. When there is no evidence of explosion during these 2 minutes or the following observation period, where the test object is to reach ambient temperatures or has its temperature decrease for at least 3 hours, this test can be considered passed.”

Original version published 2019-05-22, page 39: “To mitigate this risk EVs must pass fire resistance testing, i.e. UNECE Reg. No. 100[144].  The  amount  of  time in which  the  battery  pack  is  exposed  to  external  flames  is  2 minutes. This test is similar to the test conducted on gasoline tanks. In the test the size of the fire is determined by the geometry of the battery or tank respectively. When there is no evidence of explosion during these 2 minutes, this test can be considered passed.”

DOWNLOAD STATISTICS: Note: 932 downloads of the fullltext/report until 2019-09-23. This number was reset 2019-09-23 due to the aforementioned correction of the report.

PREFACE; FUNDING:The project (No. 45629-1) is financed by the Swedish FFI-program (Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation) which is a partnership between the Swedish government and the automotive industry. Partners within this project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Scania, Volvo Buses, SFVF (Swedish Association of Vehicle Workshops), Fogmaker International and Dafo Vehicle Fire Protection.

Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Khalili, P., Blinzler, B., Kádár, R., Bisschop, R., Försth, M. & Blomqvist, P. (2019). Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite. Materials, 12(7), Article ID 2648.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 2648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The properties of these composites were compared with those of the Control (jute fabric/Elium®). As obtained from the cone calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the peak heat release rate reduced significantly after the FR and GnP treatments of fabrics whereas total smoke release and quantity of carbon monoxide increased with the incorporation of FR. The addition of GnP had almost no effect on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide yield. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that coating jute fabrics with GnP particles led to an enhanced glass transition temperature by 14%. Scanning electron microscopy showed fibre pull-out locations in the tensile fracture surface of the laminates after incorporation of both fillers, which resulted in reduced tensile properties. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
Keywords
Elium®, Mechanical properties, Polymer-matrix composites, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Glass transition, Graphene, Morphology, Natural fibers, Resins, Scanning electron microscopy, Smoke, Tensile strength, Cone calorimeter, Flame-retarded, Graphene-based composites, Mechanical behaviour, Nano-platelets, Peak heat release rates, Resin infusion, Tensile fracture surfaces, Polymer matrix composites
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39935 (URN)10.3390/ma12172648 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071880886 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Chalmers Tekniska Högskola; Funding text 1: The financial support for this project is provided by Chalmers Area of Advance: Materials Science. The work was performed by the support of All Wood Composites Platform based in Chalmers University of Technology and the fire tests were sponsored by RISE. The authors would like to thank Arian Nasseri for the technical support in the samples' preparation and thank Mina Fazilati and Amir Masoud Pourrahimi for the assistance in performing the SEM and FTIR tests.

Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Arvidson, M., Karlsson, P., Bisschop, R., Evegren, F., Mindykowski, P., Leroux, J., . . . Gustin, L. (2018). FIRESAFE II   Alternative fixed‑fire extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces on ships.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FIRESAFE II   Alternative fixed‑fire extinguishing systems for ro-ro spaces on ships
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effectiveness of ‘drencher systems’ per Resolution A.123(V) has been questioned for many years. This report presents a review of potential commercially available alternative systems and their expected performance efficiency, water consumption and estimated installation costs. Additionally, large‑scale fire tests were performed for selected systems.

Three main alternative fire-extinguishing systems were identified:

  • Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS)
  • Foam-water sprinkler and foam‑water spray systems; and
  • Water curtains.

Water curtains was the least expensive system, but the areas sub‑divided by the water curtains require cargo spacing, resulting in significant yearly losses in income for a ship owner. Furthermore, water curtains were de-selected since they cannot replace a conventional fire-extinguishing system.

The installation cost for the selected CAFS was very high and it gave limited fire suppression in the large‑scale fire tests, probably due to the limited discharge density of 2.4 mm/min.

The system per MSC.1/Circ.1430 (10 mm/min) had superior performance while the system per Resolution A.123(V) (5 mm/min) and the foam‑water spray system (6.5 mm/min + foam) limited the fire size to some degrees. However, for a potential spill fire scenario, improvements of foam could be relevant.

Foam injection could be an alternative, but no new system was recommended to be required.

Publisher
p. 116
Keywords
fire, safety, ro-ro, ship, Fire extinguishing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-39945 (URN)
Projects
FIRESAFE II
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7724-8467

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